Friday, May 31

Physical Weathering of Rocks

Introduction to Weathering:

Weathering is a process where the earth’s rocks, soil, and mineral break down due to the direct contact with the planet’s atmosphere. The weathering occurs due to no movement, this is called as ‘situ’. The man-made structures also face weathering problems due to atmospheric exposure. Weathering is of two types, physical weathering, here the breakdown of the rocks and soil is due to the atmospheric conditions such as ice, water, heat, and pressure.Another type is chemical weathering, it is a process where the earth’s rocks and soil breaks down due to the effect of the earth’s atmospheric chemical directly on them.Please express your views of this topic Internal Energy Equation by commenting on blog.

Physical Weathering:

In physical weathering abrasion is the primary process, the physical and chemical process are inter related, as the cracks created by the physical process are increased in the surface area by the chemical reactions on it.

Type in physical weathering:

Thermal stress: Thermal stress weathering is process which causes due to the expansion and contraction of the rocks as a result of temperature change. This is more common in the desert and the regions where the temperature is higher in the day time and cooler at the night.
Frost weathering: This type of weathering is common in the regions where the temperature is nearer to or around the freezing point of water. Here the soil or rocks get cracked due to the low temperatures
Pressure release: Here the materials which is not necessarily rocks having a heavy mass are removed or it is also known as unloading of overlaying materials. This is done by some erosion or other processes. As these over laying materials are heavy they create pressure on the underlying materials.
Hydraulic action: This action occurs in the rock face when the water rushes rapidly in the cracks. At the bottom of the crack the water and a layer of air gets trapped, this causes explosion when the wave retreats which results in crack widening.

5 Forms of Energy

Energy represents itself in various forms. For a physics student it is required that he must be aware of all these forms. In this article we shall discuss the 5 forms of Energy.I like to share this Heat Transfer Rate with you all through my article.

Introduction to the 5 forms of Energy
Energy is defined as the amount of work done by a force.
Energy can neither be created nor be destroyed. It can only be changed from one form to another.
Five forms of energy:
(a) Heat energy

(b) Internal energy

(c) Electrical energy

(d) Chemical energy

(e) Nuclear energy

Description of 5 forms of energy

1. Heat energy :It is the energy possessed by a body by virtue of random motion of the molecules of the body.

2. Internal energy : It is the total energy possessed by the body by virtue of particular configuration on its molecules and also their random motion.  Does internal energy of the body is the some of potential and kinetic energies of the molecules of the body.  Potential energy is due to configuration of the molecules against inter molecular forces and kinetic energy is due to random motion of the molecules.

3. Electrical energy : Electrical energy arises on account of work required to be done in moving the free charge carriers in a particular direction through a conductor.

5 forms of Energy (cont.)

4. Chemical energy : Chemical energy of a body, say a chemical compound is the energy possessed by it by virtue of chemical bonding of its atoms.  The chemical energy becomes available in a chemical reaction.  Chemical energy arises from the fact that the molecules participating in the chemical reaction have different binding energies.  A stable chemical compound has less energy then the separated parts.  A chemical reaction is basically a rearrangement of atoms.

5. Nuclear energy : Nuclear energy is the ;energy obtainable  from an atomic nuclear.  Two distinct modes of obtaining nuclear energy are :

(a)             Nuclear fission

(b)             Nuclear fusion

Nuclear fission involves splitting of a heavy nucleus into two or more lighter nuclei, where as nuclear fusion involves fusing of two or more lighter nuclei to form a heavy nucleus.

Importance of Atmosphere

Introduction to importance of atmosphere:

The envelope of the air which surrounds our earth is called “atmosphere”. In fact, we the human beings and other living organisms live at the bottom of an ocean of air. The atmosphere extends to a height of 120 Km. It is present everywhere on the earth. All living beings need air in one form or another form. Atmosphere is divided into four major layers: Troposphere, Stratosphere, Mesosphere and Thermosphere. The composition of the components of air keeps on changing on the account of following reasons:

Atmosphere is a mixture of gases of different densities among which water vapour is one of the lightest gases, followed by nitrogen, oxygen and carbon dioxide.
There is a drop in temperature and pressure with the increase of height.

Importance of Atmosphere:

Atmosphere plays an important role in the formation of clouds, occurrence of rain and formation of snow. It prevents certain harmful radiations from reaching the surface of the earth. It also helps in the formation of winds. The studies on atmosphere also help in making weather forecasts. The weather forecasts help us in taking necessary measures to prevent loss of human life, cattle and crops due to torrential rainfall, cloud brusts, cyclones and dry spells. It also facilitate in taking appropriate measures against droughts and floods. In a way, weather forecasts help us in disaster management.

Importance of Atmosphere:

The envelope of air protects all living beings from the harmful ultraviolet radiations coming from the sun. These rays can cause skin cancer and various health problems, If they reaches our earth. It plays an important role in the formation of winds. Fast moving winds are used for running windmills. The windmills are used for drawing underground water, flour mills and for generating electricity. Winds do help in the movement of sailing ships, gliders etc. Due to presence of atmosphere, transmission of sound is possible. Some musical instruments work only due to presence of atmosphere. The presence of atmosphere enables earth to maintain suitable temperature on the earth for the survival of the living beings.

Ordinary Dry Cell

Introduction to ordinary dry cell:

The best known voltaic cell for commercial use is the ordinary dry cell. The dry cell which we use in torches, transistor radios, toys and laboratory experiments, was invented by Lechlanche in 1868. The dry cell converts chemical energy into electric energy. A single dry cell gives a voltage of 1.5 volts.

Construction of ordinary dry cell

A dry cell consists of a carbon rod placed at the centre of a zinc container. The space between the carbon rod and the zinc container is filled with a moist paste of ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) and zinc chloride (ZnCl2) mixed with manganese dioxide and powdered carbon. In dry cell, the carbon rod acts as a positive electrode (cathode); the zinc container act as a negative electrode (anode); and the ammonium chloride and zinc chloride acts as electrolyte. Manganese dioxide removes the hydrogen gas formed during the working of dry cell (by oxidising it), and prevent it settling on the positive electrode of the cell (so that it may not interfere with the working of the cell).

How ordinary dry cell works:

Actually, manganese dioxide works as depolariser (depolariser is a chemical which removes hydrogen and prevent it settling on the positive elctrode of the cell). powdered Carbon present in the dry cell helps in the movement of charges between the electrodes in the cell and hence reduces the internal resistance of the cell. Please note that a dry cell is not completely dry. The presence of little water in the miost paste is essential for the movement of ions.The dry cell is sealed at the top with the sealing wax to prevent evaporation of moisture and the carbon rod has a brass cap for better electrical contact. The zinc container has an outer insulation of card board case. The card board case, however does not cover the bottom of the cell. In dry cell , the zinc container is the producer of electrons for the usable current.

Geothermal Resources

Introduction to geothermal resources:

Geothermal energy is the heat from inside the earth, a kind of domestic energy which is reliable, cost effective and environmentally friendlier than other conventional sources of energy. It is released at an average heat flux of 60 mW/m2 by conduction. It is used for direct-heat use and electrical power generation.

Through production wells hot water is pumped up from the underground reservoir for generation of electricity, and then converted to steam by discharge of pressure. The steam is led into a turbine engine, which turns a generator. Remaining geothermal fluid is goes back into the reservoir to maintain its pressure.

Resources for geothermal energy

The global tectonic plates dictate the location of geothermal resources. Geo-dynamic processes like subsidence, sub-duction, uplift, fracturing result in geothermal features like volcanism and hydrothermal convection.

Common geothermal resources are:

A deep simple hot rock or magma body.

Heat carrying fluid.

Fractured or spongy rock.

Top rocks provide an insulating cover

The general geothermal resources need a fluid for heat transfer.

For direct-heat application, heat is extracted from the geothermal water at temperatures less than 120 o C which is used for greenhouse, home heating, vegetable drying and other small scale industries. The hot water spent, is used for direct application.

Technology and Resource Type

Geothermal resources  can be just liquid water, dry, a mixture of steam and water or mainly steam and varies in temperature from 30-350 o C. Water is the medium to transfer geothermal heat from the earth which is naturally occurring in most places but modern technologies extract this energy from hot dry rock resources. The temperature of the resource indicates the type of technologies required or its uses.

Conclusion to geothermal resources

Geothermal electric plants are built on the edges of tectonic plates as high temperature geothermal resources are available close to the surface

There are approximately 8,000 MW of generating and 12,000 MW of direct use geothermal resources world-wide.

Sunday, May 26

Iintroduction to Nuclear Physics

Introduction to nuclear physics:

Matter, right from a tiny speck of dust to a gigantic cosmic entity consists  of atoms. An atom consists of a central part called nucleus around which electrons will revolve. Another question comes to our mind is that whether a nucleus too have a structure like an atom? If so, what is the nature of its constituents and how are they held together in the nucleus? In unfolding such series of questions, a separate branch in physics called  Nuclear physics has evolved.Having problem with Linear Speed Formula keep reading my upcoming posts, i will try to help you.

Introduction to Nuclear Physics by Henri Becquerel

The year 1896, marks the beginning of nuclear physics. It is in this year, the French physicist Henri Becquerel discovered the phenomenon of radioactivity in one of he Uranium compounds, quite accidentally. The phenomenon of radioactivity refers to a particular type of invisible radiation emerging from certain specific substances. At first sight, this radiation was quite puzzling for scientists. Later on the experiments conducted by Ernst Rutherford and others proved that this radiation consists of alpha, beta and gamma rays. This rays were found to be originating in the  nucleus. The experiments conducted by Geiger and Ernst  Marsden, at the suggestion of Rutherford in 1911, involving the scattering of alpha particles have revealed that there exists a positively charged nucleus at the centre of each atom. It was James Chadwick's discovery of neutron in 1932 that clinched the issue of nuclear structure.

Conclusion on Introduction to Nuclear Physics

After the discovery of neutron Werner Heisenberg proposed that the nucleus consists of neutrons and protons. The discovery of artificial radioactivity in 1933 and nuclear fission in 1938, development of first controlled fission reactor in 1942 are some of the important milestones in the field of nuclear physics.

More recently, the scientists are focusing on the nature of nuclear forces and are trying to integrate electro weak force ( which resulted after integrating electromagnetic force and weak nuclear force) ,  strong nuclear force and gravitational force.

Subtracting Vectors Physics

Introduction to Subtracting Vectors Physics

Man's curiosity to know 'nature ' always drives him to evolve new concepts, and identify new relationships among physical quantities. The relationship among the quantities may be of algebraic or geometric in nature. It is cumbersome to represent the relationships geometrically in three dimensions. The concept of vectors and scalars solves this issue. Equations in vector form indicate both mathematical and geometrical relationships among the quantities. Physical laws in vector form and very compact, and independent of choice of coordinate system.I like to share this Displacement Vector with you all through my article.

Subtracting Vectors in Physics : Definition of Vectors

A vector is characterised by an absolute value(magnitude) and a direction. The vector, as a mathematical object, is defined as a directed line segment. Displacement, velocity acceleration, force momentum, angular momentum are a few examples of vector quantities.

A vector is geometrically represented by an arrow. Length of the arrow is proportional to the magnitude of the vector; head of the arrow gives the sense of direction. A displacement vector is represented as an arrow. The initial point( or tail ) of the vector is A, the final point (or head) is B. The length AB ( measured to a scale ) is the magnitude of the vector. The direction of the vector is specified by the angle (in counter clock - wise direction) the arrow makes with a reference line. The magnitude of the displacement is 30m. Its direction is 300 north of east.  In print a vector is represented by a single bold type letter such as d .

Subtraction of Vectors in Physics

Before the operation of subtraction is taken up it is convenient of define negative of a vector.  Negative of a vector is another vector having same magnitude but opposite direction. When a vector and its negative vector are added the resultant is Zero .

i.e.,  a + (-a) = 0. It is said that -a is anti parallel to a.

The concept of negative vector enables one to carry out subtraction of vectors. If vector b is subtracted from vectors a then add -b ( negative of vector b) to a.

a + (-b)  =  a - b

Uranium Nuclear Fuel

Introduction to Uranium nuclear fuel:

The basic fuel materials for the generation of nuclear power are the elements Uranium and Thorium. Of these, Uranium has played a major rule. Uranium is by no means a rare substance and it has been estimated to be around 4ppm of the earth’s crust. In fact, Uranium is more abundant  than relatively familiar elements such us silver, mercury, bismuth and cadmium. Although the estimated total weight of Uranium in the earth’s crust is 1014 metric tons yet most deposits are of such a low grade that the extraction of the metal would appear to be uneconomical. Uranium is extracted from the ores containing primary minerals Pitchblende and Uraninite (UO2  and  U3O8). Uranium is solvent extracted to finally produce ‘yellow cake’ containing 75% to 85% of  U3O8.  This is subjected to further treatment leading to almost pure Hexafluoride (UF6) as a product.  Uranium dioxide (UO2), Uranium metal, Uranium carbide and Uranium nitride are some of the final products that will be used as reactor fuel.Please express your views of this topic Definition of Torque by commenting on blog.

Uranium metal fuel:

Metallic Uranium was used as a fuel in most of the earlier nuclear reactors, largely because it provides the maximum number of Uranium atoms per unit volume. Since it has poor mechanical properties and great susceptibility to radiation damage, Uranium metal fuel  is not used in power reactors in many countries. It was used as a fuel in the older gas-cooled reactors.

Uranium dioxide nuclear fuel:

Uranium dioxide (UO2) , a ceramic which is the most common fuel material in commercial power reactors, has the advantages of high-temperature, stability and adequate resistance to radiation. It also has a high melting point of 2865oC and is chemically inert to attack by hot water. It is this property which makes it attractive for use in water- cooled reactors, where the consequences of a cladding failure could be catastrophic if the fuel material reacted readily with the water at the existing high temperature. Another beneficial property of Uranium dioxide is its ability to retain a large proportion of the fission gases provided the temperature does not exceed about 1000oC. The major disadvantage of Uranium dioxide as a fuel material is its low thermal conductivity, although this is partially offset by the fact that very high temperatures are permissible in the centre of the fuel element.

Solar Wind Geothermal

Introduction to solar, wind and geothermal energy:

Renewable energy comes from natural resources like sunlight, tides, wind, rain and geothermal heat. Three major renewable energy resources are wind power, solar energy and geothermal energy. Advantage of renewable energy is that they are inexhaustible, environmentally friendly with low dangerous pollutant emissions.

Solar energy

Solar energy is derived from the sun in the form of solar radiation. Electrical generation by solar power relies on heat engines and photovoltaic. Solar applications include day lighting, solar architecture, solar cooking, solar hot water and for industrial purposes.

Solar technologies can be classified as passive or active, depending on the method of intake, conversion and distribution of solar energy. Active solar techniques include solar thermal collectors and photovoltaic panels to harness the energy. Passive solar techniques include selecting materials, orienting to the Sun, light dispersing properties, and designing spaces that naturally circulate air.

Advantages and disadvantages of wind energy

Flow of air is used to run wind turbines which provide a source of clean and renewable energy for homes or business. Small wind energy devices generate power very cost effectively.

Wind turbines range from 600 kW to 5 MW of power. The power output is the cube of the wind speed, hence power output increases as the wind speed increases. Offshore and high altitude areas where winds are stronger are preferred for wind farms.


Wind energy is friendly to the surrounding environment,

Wind turbines take up less space than a power station.

The wind is free.

Wind turbines can generate energy in remote locations.


The winds unreliability factor, which can be too low to support a wind turbine or wind farm,

Wind turbines produce less electricity than fossil- fueled power station; hence multiple wind turbines are needed to make an impact.

Construction can be very expensive.

The noise pollution from commercial wind turbines is sometimes similar to a small jet engine.

Geothermal power energy

The earth contains a large amount of energy in the form of heat. Geothermal energy is obtained by using the earth's heat from kilometers deep into the Earth's crust or from some meters. All this geothermal energy has the potential to generate power to provide electricity.

Three different types of geothermal energy power plants are used to generate power: flash, dry steam and binary.

The best advantage of geothermal energy is that they are useful even in cold regions like Norway and Sweden by using ground source heat pumps.

Experience Weightlessness

Introduction to experiencing weightlessness

As we know that the earth attracts every another body towards its centre. The force with which the earth attracts another bodies is called the weight. The weight of the body on the earth is equal to the product of the mass of the body and the acceleration due to gravity of earth. Here we can say that the weight = mass × acceleration due to gravity = mg. The value of acceleration due to gravity (g) is not constant throughout the earth. The weight of the body changes as the value of the acceleration due to gravity changes. Here we discuss in which situation the weight of the body becomes zero that means the condition of the body is weightlessness.I like to share this Units for Acceleration with you all through my article.

Experiencing weightlessness and conditions related to it

The weight mg of the body is also known as the true weight or the static weight of the body. We become conscious for our weight, only when weight is opposed by some other object. Actually, the secret of measuring the weight of the body with the weighing machine lies in fact that as we place the body on the weighing machine, the weighing machine opposes the weight of the body. The reaction of the weighing machine gives the weight of the body. There are four main conditions in which the body becomes weightlessness. The four conditions are as follow:

(i) When the body falling freely under the gravity the weight of the body is zero. For example, a lift is falling freely; any ball falling from the tower etc. experiences the weightlessness.

(ii) When the satellite revolves in the orbit around the earth experiences weightlessness. The gravitational force acting towards the centre of the earth balances by the centripetal force acting on the body so that the weight is zero.

(iii) When the bodies are at null point in the outer space. After the certain height, the gravitational pull of the earth becomes less and it is more for moon so that the body will feel the attraction force towards the moon. At that particular height where the gravity of the earth balances by the gravity of moon, the body experiences weightlessness.

(iv) When we reach at the center of the earth, we feel weightlessness. As the value of the acceleration due to gravity at the centre of the earth is zero and so, the weight of the body at the centre of the earth is also zero.

Conclusion of experiencing weightlessness

Weightlessness causes very serious problems to the astronauts. It becomes quite difficult for them to control their movements. Everything in the artificial satellite has to be kept tied down. To overcome this problem we create the artificial gravity so that they do not feel the weightlessness.

Friday, May 24

What Is Synchronous Motor

Introduction to what is synchronous motor

A synchronous motor (electric) is the another name of alternating current motor which converts the electrical energy into some mechanical energy. In the working of the  synchronous motor the rotor is spinning with the coils and then develops the magnetic field which is used to rotates the motor. Synchronous motor’s speed is determined by  pair numbers of the magnetic poles and the number of oscillations of the electric current (a.c) which is the alternating source of electricity.

Description of Synchronous Motor

The availability of the synchronous motors are in the sub fractional and self excited sizes to very high power and operating on the direct current also. The two types of the synchronous motors, which are used generally: one is non excited synchronous motor and the other is direct current excited synchronous motor. The non excited synchronous motors are constructed on the basis of the idea of reluctance and hysteresis designs, and they starts by the are self circuits and they do not require no any excitation supply of the energy. The reluctance design motors have 30 horse power efficiency. In the synchoronous motors there is a need of low torque and we can use these in the instrumentation applications. Synchronous motors are having the toothed rotors in some designs. The main parts of the synchronous motor are:

(i) the startor is the outer part as a shell of the motor which carries the armature windings, this winding is distributed for poly phase alternating current. The armature creates the rotating magnetic field.

(ii) the rotor is the moving part of the synchronous motor. The permanent magnet is produced by the field due to the windings.

(iii) the function of the slip rings in rotor is to supply the direct current to the windings of the wires in the direct current excited type synchronous motors.

Uses of synchronous Motor

Almost the synchronous motors of low horse power are used to provide the constant speed. The synchronous motors of high horse power are used for converting the energy  alternating current in the work which is useful for the different purposes in the heavy industries and the important use is that it work on power factor having value unity, that means the power loss is negligible.

Energy From The Sun Is Called

Introduction on energy from the sun is called:

The energy from sun is called Solar Energy. In fact, the best form of energy available to us is “SOLAR ENERGY”. The sun is the source of all energy. The sun provides us heat and light energy free of cost. The energy obtained from the sun is called solar energy. The nuclear fusion reactions taking place inside the sun keep on liberating enormous amounts of heat and light energy. This heat and light energy is radiated by the sun in all directions in the form of solar energy. The sun has been radiating an enormous amount of energy at the present rate for nearly 5 billions years and will continue radiating energy at that rate for nearly 5 billion years more. Since, the sin is very far away only a small fraction of the solar energy radiated by the sun reaches the outer layer of the earth’s atmosphere. A little less than half of the atmosphere actually reaches the surface of earth. The rest of solar energy is reflected back into space by the atmosphere and also absorbed by the atmosphere as it comes down through it towards the surface of the earth.

Advantages of solar energy

The best form of energy,solar energy which reaches the earth is absorbed by land and water-bodies as well as by plants. The solar energy trapped by land and water-bodies causes many phenomena in nature like winds, storms, rain, snowfall and sea-waves. The plants utilize solar energy to prepare food by the process of photosynthesis. The various sources of energy derive their energy from the sun, the best source of energy.

1. Non-renewable sources of energy, fossil fuels also derive their energy from sun. It is solar energy, which is converted into petroleum and oil.

2. Solar energy does not cause any pollution as compared to non-renewable sources of energy.

3. The solar energy is best form of energy because it is available in a diffused form so it is available to almost everyone on the earth.

Conclusion to solar energy

Finally ,the best source of energy, that is , solar energy is clean. It is a clean alternative to fossil fuels and nuclear power and it will never run out. It’s silent. Solar power can be captured anywhere without creating noise pollution that might otherwise up set neighbours and wildlife. It works wherever the sun shines. It doesn’t matter how remote, solar can generate energy where no other form of power can be obtained. Thus, no danger of damaging our already damaged environment further and you can be part of the Green initiative, lower your carbon footprint, and save our planet from harmful greenhouse gases.

Regular and Diffuse Reflection

Introduction to Regular and Diffused Reflection

When light traveling in one medium strikes a boundary leading to another medium, a part of incident light is through back into the original medium one. This phenomenon is called reflection of light.

Reflection is of two types:

Regular reflection
Irregular reflection or diffuse reflection

Description to regular and diffuse reflection

1.    Regular reflection: When the reflection surface is smooth and well polished, the parallel rays falling on it are reflected parallel to another one, the reflected light goes in one particular direction. This is regular reflection. The smooth and well polished surface is called mirror. Silver metal is one of the best reflectors of light. So, ordinary mirrors are made by depositing a thin layer of silver metal on one side of a plane glass sheet. The silver layer is protected by a coat of red paint. The reflection of light in a mirror takes place at the silver surface. A plane mirror is represented by a straight line, with a number of short, oblique lines showing back of the mirror.

2.    Diffuse reflection: When the reflecting surface is rough, the parallel rays falling on it are reflected in different direction. Such a reflection is known as diffuse reflection or irregular reflection or even scattering of light. In this, a surface will behave as a smooth surface as long as the surfaces variations are small as compared to the wavelength of incident light. As wavelength of visible light is very small therefore, every surface acts as a rough surface and scattering of light or irregular reflection is more common. For example, any object in a room can be seen from all the parts of the room. This is because surface of the object is rough and it scatters or reflects light in all directions.

Regular and Diffused Reflection : Summary

Reflection of light is the phenomenon of bouncing back of light in the same medium on striking the surface of any object.

Different Ways to Conserve Energy

Introduction to different ways of conserving energy:

When energy is saved, the demand for fossil fuels as oil, coal and natural gas is reduced. Less use of fossil fuels means less pollution, lower emissions of carbon dioxide and less global warming.Below is a house that uses various renewable energy and acts as an example for various ways to conserve energy.

Ways of conserving energy

Plant large, shady trees and paint a dark color to a house in a cold climate or a light color to a house in a warm climate. Trees absorb carbon dioxide from the air and give out oxygen.

Do not leave house hold appliances like Air Conditioner, computer, television, radio etc. on while you are out or when not needed.

Do not cool or warm areas that people are not in and close doors and windows in unused rooms.

Replace light bulbs with energy saving fluorescent bulbs.

Air dishes and clothes whenever possible.

Set lower temperature for the thermostat in the water heater, refrigerator and other heating or cooling devices to reduce electricity consumption. This cuts off the current supply sooner than; this is more efficient than using very hot water and then mixing it with cold water before for use.

Use solar water heaters.

Clean air filters regularly in the air conditioners. Free passage of air doesn't stress the device and thus reduce current.

Insulate doors, roofs and windows to reduce leakage of hot or cool air.

Use dishwasher and clothes washer at full capacity to as multiple usage increases electricity consumption.

Whenever possible get a walk, use mass transit or car pool than using your car daily. This reduces fuel consumption.

Use energy efficient appliances- with energy star label; though expensive, they use less current and reduce pollution and over a period of time save money.

Recycle and reuse whenever possible. Avoid packaged products and go for recyclable ones as they reduce pollution.

ways of conserving energy

Conclusion to different ways to conserve energy

From the discussion on conserving energy, we conclude that besides conserving energy, think of ways to use alternative sources of energy like, solar power, wind power, human powered mechanical energy etc.

Diffuse Reflection

Introduction to diffuse reflection:

The light rays travels in the straight line. The ray of light travels with the velocity of 3 × 108 metre per second. If the ray of light travels from one medium to another medium it suffers refraction due to the change in the velocity of light in different mediums. If the ray of light falls on the smooth and polished surface it suffers reflection. Here we discuss about reflection.I like to share this Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics with you all through my article.

Diffused reflection:

The bouncing back of the light rays after striking from the highly polished and the smooth surfaces is called reflection. The image formed on retina so the we can see the objects is the very important example of reflection. As the rays of light falls on any object, the rays are reflected from the object and then enter in our eye. Now from the refraction of the eye lens the image of the object is formed on the retina. After that, the optical nerves carry the optical signals to the mind as the mind gives the permission to see the object we can see the image of the object very clearly. The reflection are of two types: one is called the specular or regular reflection and the other is diffused or irregular reflection. In the case of regular reflection, it obeys the laws of reflection completely but in case of the diffused reflection, it does not obey the laws of reflection completely. The diffused reflections are done by the non-polished or the slightly polished and non smooth or rough surfaces. As the rays of light falls on a rough and non-polished surface at any angle of incidence then the angle of reflection is not equal to the angle of incidence. Here the rays of light do not follow the first law of reflection. Similarly, the normal to the reflecting surface, incident ray and the reflected ray are not lie in the same plane, so the rays of light do not follow the second law of reflection.

Examples of the diffused reflection measurement:

The examples of the diffused reflection are the reading of newspaper or reading of a notebook. As we read the newspaper the images of the letters can be produce on the retina. Similarly, the ray of light from our body is reflected but the reflection is diffused so that we cannot see our image on the newspaper.

Thursday, May 23

Rotating Magnetic Field

Introduction to Rotating Magnetic Field:

A rotating magnetic field is a kind of magnetic field which ideally changes its direction at an angular rate which is constant. In the working of a motor that works on alternating current, the rotating magnetic field plays a key role as it is associated with its principle of operation. The concept of rotating magnetic field was introduced by Nikola Tesla in 1882. Galileo Ferrari's has done his research independently to introduce some more features of this concept in 1885.

Production of Rotating Magnetic Field

A rotating magnetic field which is symmetric can be produced using as few as three coils. To produce a rotating magnetic field, three coils should be driven by a symmetric three phase a.c. current and one of the phases is shifted to 120 degrees as compared to the other phase. In this case the magnetic filed should be taken as the linear function of the current which is flowing in the coil. The three phases which are 120 degrees out of phase compare to each other when applied to the axis of the alternating current motor then it produces a single rotating vector. This rotating vector follows the magnetic field in the coil and hence produces a rotating magnetic field .

Application of Rotating Magnetic Field

Rotating magnetic fields can also be used in the induction motors because the magnets, which are used, degrades with time and the induction motor use the short circuited rotor instead of a magnet, which is easily follow the rotating magnetic field produced by a stator, which is multi coiled. In the case of the induction motor, the turns of the rotor which is short circuited, develops the eddy current in the rotating magnetic field of the stator which is used to move the rotor by the developed Lorentz force. Such motors are generally not synchronous but they have involved a necessary degree of the slip by which the current will be produced due to the relative motion of the field and the rotor.

4 Simple Machines

Introduction to Simple Machines:

A simple machine is nothing but a kind of mechanical device which is used to change either the direction of the applied force or the magnitude of the given force. Generally the simple machines are defined in the simple way as the simplest mechanisms which are used to get the mechanical advantage, which is also called the leverage of the applied force in the specific and simpler manner. A simple machine uses the applied force for the work which is being done by the simple machine and the work is done against the single load force. If one ignores the losses that occur due to the friction then the work done by the applied force is equal to the work done on the given load. The simple machines can be used in order to increase the amount of the output force which is done at the cost of the decrease in the distance covered or moved by the load and this decrease is proportional to the increase in the output force.

Types of Simple Machines:

Usually there are six classical simple machines which are given below:


Wheel and axle


Inclined plane



4 Simple Machines

Pulley: The pulley is a simple machine used for the easy holding of the heavy weights. A pulley consists of the grooved wheels and the rope which is used to raise or lower or move any load.

Lever: A lever is nothing but a piece of the wood or the stiff bar of wood which is at rest on a support and the support is called the fulcrum and hence on that support it is used to lift or move the loads.

Wedge: A wedge is the object which has at least one side which is slanting and the same is ending in a sharp edge and this sharp edge is used to cut the materials apart.

Wheel & Axle: A wheel which is there with a rod which is called the axle and the compound system made the simple machine wheel and axle and in this simple machine the load is lifted or moved through the center of the machine.

Different Types of Energy

Introduction to different types of energy:

It is often said that a person A is more energetic than a person B. The meaning of this statement is that a person A can do more work than the person B. Person A is said to have more energy. Energy is needed to do some work. After doing a lot of work, one feels tired and need more energy. Thus, anything which is capable of doing work has energy. The capacity of doing work by a body or an object is known as the energy of  the body or the object.I like to share this Rotational Kinetic Energy Formula with you all through my article.

Energy is defined as the ability or the capacity to do work.

Units of Energy:

Energy can be measured in Joules. Joule is named after an English physicist named James Prescott Joule who lived from 1818 to 1889. He discovered that heat is a type of energy. One joule is the amount of energy needed to lift 1 pound about 9 inches.

Types of Energy:

Kinetic Energy- The energy possessed by a body by virtue of its motion is known as kinetic energy. For example a moving bus, Moving bullets, flowing water etc.

Potential Energy-  The energy possessed by a body by virtue of its position or shape, is known as Potential energy. For example water stored in a dam , a stone lying on the top of hill, a wound spring of a watch, a stretched bow and arrow  etc.

Mechanical Energy- The sum of kinetic energy and potential energy of a body is known as mechanical energy.

Types of Energy:

Heat or Thermal Energy- The energy possessed by a body due to its temperature is known as heat energy. For example energy of hot water, energy of hot air etc.

Chemical Energy- The energy released in chemical reactions is known as chemical energy.
Sound Energy- The energy of a vibrating object producing sound is known as Sound energy.
Electrical Energy- The energy of moving electrons in a conductor connected with a battery is known as electrical energy.
Nuclear Energy- The energy released when two nuclei of light elements combine with each other to form a heavy nucleus or when a heavy nucleus breaks into two light nuclei is known as nuclear energy.

Solar Energy- The energy radiated by the sun is known as Solar energy

Wednesday, May 22

White Light Spectrum

Introduction to white light spectrum:

White light spectrum is the visible light waves and they are electromagnetic waves that can be seen.  The white light is not white. It consists  of different colors of different wave length.  White light is a mixture of  of Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, and Violet.   These form a part of the electromagnetic spectrum.  Electromagnetic spectrum is a bunch of radiations and visible light is a part of this spectrum.   These Electromagnetic radiations are  radio waves, Microwaves,  infrared, visible light rays, Ultraviolet, x-rays and gamma rays.

Description about White light spectrum

The EM (Electromagnetic spectrum) is a bunch of radiations.  Radiation is an energy that travels and spreads. It can be visible white light of radio waves.

Newton gave his findings that when white light is passed through a transparent medium like glass this created a spread of colored light rays from r  Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, and Violet.  These are the colors  of the rainbow. This ordered separated of colored light is known as the spectrum. The white light spectrum also consists of UV light but that cannot be seen. When white light passes  through a prism, the white light is split  into the colors of the visible light spectrum. Water vapor in the atmosphere can also split the white light of different wave lengths  creating a rainbow.   Red color has longer wave length and violet has the shortest wave length.  There lies continuous range  of spectrum of wavelengths between red and violet.

White light spectrum passing through prism

The white light spectrum is the section of electromagnetic radiation spectrum that is visible to be human eye.  It ranges in wavelength from approximately 400 Newton meter (4 x 10-7 m) to 700 Newton meter  (7 x 10-7 m). It is also known as the optical spectrum of light.

When white light is passed through a prism it causes the wavelengths to bend at slightly different angles. That is due to refraction. This bending of light results in splitting of white light into visible colors. This cause the rainbow. The airborne  particles acts as the refractive medium which causes the splitting of white light into different angles.

Static Electricity Materials

Static Electricity

Static electricity is the accumulation of excess charge on the surface of an insulator, that is, a material that does not conduct electricity.

Why does the charge accumulate?

An atom is made of a positively charged nucleus (made of protons and neutrons) surrounded by several shells of electrons which are negatively charged. Objects that we see everyday are made of electrically neutral atoms or molecules. This means that the number of positive charges and negative charges are equal. However, when two electrically neutral materials are in contact, the electrons may move from one material to another. This means that one material gets an excess of negative charge, while the other one gets an excess of positive charge. If you separate the materials after the electrons have moved, there will be a charge imbalance in the materials.

In a conducting material, the charges are immediately conducted away, and the charge does not accumulate. So, the phenomenon of static charge accumulation or static electricity can be seen only in insulators or non-conductors.

Experiments of static electricity materials:

You can see how static charges accumulate by doing these simple experiments.

Experiment 1:

Rub a balloon vigorously on a sweater.  The rubbing motion increases the area of contact between the two surfaces, making it easier for charges to migrate. The balloon gets negatively charged and the jumper aquires a positive charge. Now, if you bring the balloon close to your hair, your hair will cling to the balloon. This is known as static cling.

Experiment 2:

Use a plastic comb to comb through your hair about ten times. Now, turn on a tap so that you have a steady water flow. The flow should not be very fast. If you bring the comb near the stream of water without touching it, the water will bend towards the comb. This is because the charges on the comb pull on the uncharged water.

Removing static electricity:

Static electricity can be removed by bringing the material into contact with a conductor, or with a region that has an excess charge that is opposite to the material. This causes the charge to neutralize, resulting in a static 'shock.' In regions of high humidity, the air itself will conduct away the static charges.

Tuesday, May 21

Moon Distance From Earth

Introduction to moon distance from earth:

To begin with moon's distance from earth, let us know that Moon is a natural satellite of our earth. In our solar system, there are nine planets and out of which seven planets have their moons. Moons are also the part of the solar system. Actually, the name moon means the artificial satellite. That is the name of the family not the name of a particular natural satellite. Because earth has only one natural satellite, so that we can say it moon, but the planets has so many artificial natural satellites so there is the particulars name given to all the moons. Here we discuss about the distance of the moon from our earth.

Moon's distance from earth:

A solid heavenly body that revolves around a planet is called its natural satellite or the moon. Moon is the natural satellite of the earth, which revolves around the earth. Natural satellites, i.e., moons do not have their own light. They reflect the sun light falling on them and appear shining. The size of the moon of the earth is one fourth of the size of the earth. The diameter of the moon is 3480 Km. The mass of the moon is one eighth of the mass of the earth, i.e., 7.35 × 1022 kg.  The distance of the moon from the earth’s surface is 3.8 × 105 km. The surface of the moon is hard and loose soil, craters, mountainous. There is no atmosphere on the moon. The temperature of the moon at the daytime is 110°C and at the nighttime is -150°C.

Conclusion of moon distance from the earth:

Moon completes one revolution around the earth in 27.3 days. As the temperature is too high and too low on the moon, the survival of life is not possible. The conditions of the survival of life are moderate temperature, existence of water, oxygen rich atmosphere and the presence of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen elements and the main important thing is protective layer, which can protect the moon groom the ultra violet radiations of the sun. All these conditions are not full fill on the surface of the moon so the life cannot exist on the moon.

Tides and Waves Energy

Introduction to tidal renewable energy:

There are two types of energy in nature i.e. renewable and non-renewable. Non renewable sources of energy includes those sources of energy which derived from fossil-fuels. It includes, petroleum, natural gas, diesel, etc.  Renewable sources includes those sources which are gift of nature and available free of cost to us. Such as Hydro energy, solar energy, Wind energy, Thermal energy. Geo-thermal energy etc. One of them is "Tidal energy".  Tidal energy refers to the form of the energy which is derived from the motion of  tides waves. Tides are supposed to be generated in sea by the gravitational pull of the moon.  When Tides flow at certain pace, it acquires tremendous energy due to its motion i.e. kinetic energy. Mainly, it is Kinetic energy which causes it to do work.

Cause of energy in tides:

Energy in Tide is stored in the form of pressure. When water molecule is flowing,  the electrons start to move at high speed. This moving molecule of water takes to the air because of its quickly moving electrons. This moving water molecule keeps away from other water molecules. This distance gives rise to pressure. When this process of moving water occurs at large scale, enormous amount of pressure is built. When this pressure is released, energy can be generated. This energy is known as Tidal Energy

Uses and limitations of tidal energy:

Tidal energy has industrial, agricultural and house hold uses. This energy is used in industries for power generation. The transfer of energy from the tides to the object causes it to move.Tidal energy produced is used to rotate the turbine, which in turns rotates shaft of the generator.  Thus, electricity is produced. However there are certain limitations regarding the uses of Tidal energy. It can be used only under certain conditions and at certain places where there is ample scope of its availability. The geographical location of the place is a varying factor for the use of tidal energy. The locations near the sea are good sites for harnessing the tidal energy. One of the major limitation is that it is not available 24 hours a day.

What is Wind Power Energy

Introduction on what is wind power energy:

Wind energy is more upgrading energy. It was less known to people in ancient times, sailor used wind energy to sail boat then it was used for much more purpose. Wind energy was converted into mechanical energy and that lead many applications. The most beneficial was used in generation of electrical energy mostly in hilly areas. This led to generation of high power of energy and was transmitted using cables.

Wind Power Systems

The wind turbines play a vital role in conversion of wind energy into mechanical energy and thus help in generating electrical energy. Wind turbines are attached with blades and ensured it can withstand high velocity of wind, as wind hits the blades it rotates which in turn rotated the motor of the generator and helps in generating electricity. This electricity is transmitted usually using wires to towers and mostly as three phase alternating current. The rotational speed of turbine cannot be predicted and so do the voltage and frequency varies and it may not be at constant times. Most hilly stations are located with turbines especially with three blades with capacity to up hold the high velocities of wind and produce electricity.

The output is rectified to direct current (DC) to charge batteries or to be inverted for grid connection.

Wind turbines can be classified into two groups: vertical-axis design and the horizontal-axis variety. A horizontal-axis wind turbine normally has two or three blades. These three-bladed are operated with blades facing the wind.

Wind Turbine

One can see wind turbines situated in almost all hill stations and its rotation depends  on the speed of wind. As winds velocity increases so the acceleration of blades increase and rotates at a high rotational speed. The rotation is not constant even during rain the turbines rotate at better speed and which activated the generator at the time and is transferred using wire cables. The main advantage is that it doesn’t produce any waste or effect the environment in either ways. Sometimes a drastic increase in the wind will increase the turbine speed numerously and thus the energy consumption. In hilly station this is the main source of energy and comparatively installing a small turbine is cost effective.

Wednesday, May 15

Angular Displacement

We know that linear displacement of a body is the difference between final position and initial position of a body. When there is a rotational motion then the displacement is called angular displacement and is different from linear displacement. I like to share this formula for angular velocity with you all through my article.

Let us understand What is Angular Displacement?
It is the angle through which a body has been rotated about certain axis. In a rotational motion the velocity of the particle keeps on changing at every instant.
So rotational motion is dealt I a different way. In this case the body is considered as rigid instead of particle as the distance between all the particle remains constant throughout the motion.

Observe the diagram given above. The object starts moving from its initial position to point A. In such a case the distance of the object remains constant from origin throughout its motion.
The coordinates of the object is then defined in polar coordinate system as (r, Ө) where r is its distance from origin and Ө is the angle it has covered from x axis. Ө keeps on varying and r remains constant during the motion. As particle rotates along the circle it covers an arc on the circle which is given by:
S = r.Ө, here s is the arc covered by the object; r and Ө are radius and angle covered by the object.
Angular displacement is Ө and Angular Displacement Units are radians and is given by the following relation:
Ө = S/r
Example: if a body rotates an angle of 180 degree on a circle of radius r then angular-displacement is given by the distance travelled n circumference which is πr divided by the radius such as:
Ө = πr/r = π
If the object starts motion on the circle at some point other than on x axis which makes an angle Ө1 with x axis and then moves to other point which makes an angle Ө2 with x axis then angular displacement is given by the final angle minus initial angle i.e. Ө = Ө2 – Ө1.

Angular Velocity and Acceleration are other rotational terms. During the rotation even if the particle moves with a constant rotational speed the particle accelerates. This is due to the fact that it always changes its direction of movement. Angular acceleration is given as rate of change of angular velocity and is denoted by . Its unit is radians.second2.
= d^2Ө/dt^2
= dω/dt. Here ω is angular velocity. It is the rate of change of angular position. Its unit is radians/second.
ω= dӨ/dt.

Diffraction Waves

Let us define diffraction first. As we know diffraction is the bending of the waves when they collide with an obstacle. It is also possible when the waves pass through the slit etc. Now the point to think here is something our discussion will be about. Imagine there is a wall between you and your friend. The wall has a little hole on the top. Your friend calls you from the other side. You will be able to hear his voice that is for sure. How do you think this is possible? This is because of the bending of the sound waves and their spherical passage through the hole in the wall. So, waves that we referred to in the above definition will include both sound and light waves.

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Diffraction sound is an interesting phenomenon in itself. Imagine a sound proof room. It is sound-proof; this means that it does not have any small or big openings which would have otherwise led to this phenomenon.
While discussing sound diffraction we should also take in account the wavelength of the sound wave. When the order of wavelength of the obstacle or its size is the order of the wavelength of the sound waves which pass through it then we will be able to experience the phenomena. This is because in other cases the effect will be negligible.

As already mentioned the diffraction of a wave may include both light waves as well as sound waves. In fact the sensation of vision is mostly possible because of this phenomenon. Sound waves also have the ability of reflection. This combined gives rise to many interesting phenomena.

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Let us also discuss a few examples of this.
When sitting in a auditorium; even when it is curved or spherical we are able to hear the sound due to its bending at collision with various objects. Also consider a big building and someone playing music at one end and people standing at other side of the building. Sound obviously exhibits the phenomenon of diffraction in this case. Drums playing in a marriage and you being able to hear it inside your house are another example of the same combined with reflection of sound waves.

Even take an example of sound barriers build to protect the tenants from traffic noise. But then also people are able to hear the noise in a lower amount. This is also because of the same phenomenon.

Potential Energy Facts

Introduction to facts related to potential energy:

Object stores energy by the effect of its position and this energy is known as potential energy. Suppose, when a demolition machine lifts its heavy ball, it stores energy in it. This energy stored because of position is known as potential energy. Similarly, energy is stored in a drawn bow because of its position. When in equilibrium (i.e., when not drawn), no energy is stored in the bow. However, when its position is altered it stores energy by the virtue of changing position. This stored energy is potential energy. The 19th century Scottish engineer and physicist William Rankine coined the term potential energy. Its SI unit is Joules denoted by ‘J’.

Overview on Potential Energy

Energy that is stored within a system is potential energy. Potential energy exists when an object is tending to pull towards some lower energy position. This force is known as restoring force. Suppose, a spring is stretched to the left then a force will work to the right to bring it back in the original position. For this energy is required. The energy required in restoring the spring is stored in metal. Thus, as the law of conservation of energy state, energy cannot disappear and hence, stored as potential energy.

General rule

PE = mgh

Change in the potential energy is denoted by ?U. Commonly used notations for potential energy are U, Ep, and PE.

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Some other types of potential energies

Gravitational Potential energy

PE = mgh

m = mass, g = gravity (9.8m/s), h = height

Elastic Potential energy

PEelastic = 0.5kx^2

k = spring constant, x = expansion or compression amount

Chemical potential energy – Energy related to the molecular or atomic structural arrangement is known as Chemical potential energy.

Electrical potential energy – Potential energy in an object due to its electric charge is electrical potential energy. It is divided into two parts i.e. Electrostatic Potential energy and Electrodynamics’ potential energy.

Nuclear potential energy – Potential energy inside an atomic nucleus is known as nuclear potential energy.

Motion in One Dimension

Introduction to motion in one dimension:-
When a object moves in a straight line, motion of the object is called as motion in one dimension.

This type of motion is also called as linear motion. For example, 1. A ball moves on a level road in straight Line,  2. A ball is thrown straight up, 3. Free falling bodies. One dimensional motion is the simplest motion in physics.

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Some definitions orf motion in one dimensions:

Displacement-   the shortest distance between initial and final point is called as displacement.

Distance- the length of path travelled by object between initial and final points is called as distance travelled by object.

Speed – speed of object can be calculated by eq.  -         Speed = distance/ time.

Average speed-          average speed is the average of all speeds attained by object during trip.

It can be calculated by eq. -           average speed = total distance travelled / total time taken

Velocity-   velocity of the object can be calculated by eq.-    velocity = displacement / time

General Units of velocity is meter/second, kilometer/hour, miles/ hour. SI unit of velocity is meter/second.

Average velocity- average velocity of object can be calculated by eq. –

Average velocity = change in position / time interval

Acceleration- acceleration of the object is the rate of change of velocity. It can be calculated by eq.-

Acceleration = change in velocity / time interval

Uniform motion- when speed of the object is constant throughout one dimensional motion. Motion is called as uniform motion.

Non-uniform motion- speed in non-uniform motions is not constant and these motions have acceleration.

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Distance- time graph : Motion in one dimension

Distance- time graph in one dimensional motion is drawn between distance travelled and time. For uniform one dimensional motion this graph shows a straight line. Slope of line represents the velocity of motion. For non-uniform one dimensional motion, this graph shows a curve.

Thursday, May 2

Integrated Data Communication

Introduction to Integrated Data Communication:

Integrated Data Communications  (IDC) is a Seattle-based integrator of wireless voice and data solutions for mobile devices and computers. IDC enable us to send and receive high-value data ubiquitously -- regardless of technology, device or network.

It is a technology which enables the transmission of data over digital wireless voice channels while not requiring changes to the existing network infrastructure.

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Concept of integrated data communication

Integrated data communications (IDC) is an application of telecommunications technology to solve the problem of transmitting data, especially to and from, or between computers. Generally, it is said that using integrated data communications one computer can “talk" with another computer.

IDC is  intelligent wireless communications that integrate voice and data to support location-based and other high-value data applications and services on any wireless network or air interface. In present days this is easily used to communicate between two mobile devices.

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Example of Integrated data communication:

As we have shown above, the communication is done using a wireless network thus we easily say that the wireless data communication in the integrated mode is one of the examples of integrated data communication.

Wireless SCADA systems are one of the good examples of this communication. These systems usually operate over wide geographical area; country, province, large city, district, etc. These systems shall preferable operate as stand alone and well "isolated" from other communication networks, which may be vulnerable to overloading, interference,  interruption of service, security attacks, fraud, etc. The data communication rates of SCADA is in the range of 1200 bps up to 9600 bps.

How to Read Electrical Circuits

Introduction on how to read electrical circuits:

Electrical circuits are the combinations of different electrical appliances connected in a particular manner. Electrical circuit is the symbolic representation of the circuit, which helps us to define all the parameters of the circuits such as voltage, current, resistance, capacitance and inductance, etc. It is the diagram in which all the electrical appliances connect. It is the very short way to create the circuit.

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Concept of reading electrical circuits:

In the electrical circuit, first find the values that is given in the standard units. Such as resistance in micro ohms so convert it in ohms, current in milli-ampere then convert it in ampere, voltage in milli-volt so convert it in volt, capacitance in micro farad so convert it in farad. Now first find the equivalent resistance of the circuit.

We have two formulae for finding the equivalent resistance one for series combination of resistances and other for the parallel resistances.

For the series combination of resistances Rs = R1 + R2 + R3

For the parallel combination of resistances `Rp = 1/ (R1) + 1/(R2) + 1/(R3)`

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Procedure for reading electric circuit:

To read any electrical circuit first find that which of the resistances are in series combination and which are in the parallel combination. Now apply the formula for finding the equivalent resistance. Now we use ohm’s law to find the respective current.

First, always try to find the current in the whole circuit and then try to find the potential difference across the series resistance. As we know the potential difference of the series resistance now try to find the potential difference of the parallel resistance. Now again using the Ohm’s law find the current in the remaining resistances. As we know the current and the potential of each resistance, we completely read the electrical circuit. If the circuit containing capacitors then we use the same procedure.  But the formula to find the equivalent capacitor is different from the resistors.

For the series combination of capacitors  `1/C_S = 1/(C1) + 1/ (C2) + 1/(C3)`

For the parallel combination of capacitors Cp = C1 + C2 + C3  same procedure is to followed to completely read the electrical circuit.

Wednesday, May 1

Two Types of Reflection

Introduction to Two types of Reflection

When light traveling in one medium strikes a boundary leading to another medium, a part of incident light is through back into the original medium one. This phenomenon is called reflection of light.

Reflection is of two types:

Regular reflection
Irregular reflection or diffuse reflection

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The Two types of reflection

1.    Regular reflection: When the reflection surface is smooth and well polished, the parallel rays falling on it are reflected parallel to another one, the reflected light goes in one particular direction. This is regular reflection. The smooth and well polished surface is called mirror. Silver metal is one of the best reflectors of light. So, ordinary mirrors are made by depositing a thin layer of silver metal on one side of a plane glass sheet. The silver layer is protected by a coat of red paint. The reflection of light in a mirror takes place at the silver surface. A plane mirror is represented by a straight line, with a number of short, oblique lines showing back of the mirror.

2.    Irregular reflection: When the reflecting surface is rough, the parallel rays falling on it are reflected in different direction. Such a reflection is known as diffuse reflection or irregular reflection or even scattering of light. In this, a surface will behave as a smooth surface as long as the surfaces variations are small as compared to the wavelength of incident light. As wavelength of visible light is very small therefore, every surface acts as a rough surface and scattering of light or irregular reflection is more common. For example, any object in a room can be seen from all the parts of the room. This is because surface of the object is rough and it scatters or reflects light in all directions.

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Two types of Reflection : Summary

Reflection of light is the phenomenon of bouncing back of light in the same medium on striking the surface of any object.

Energy Bands in Silicon

Introduction to Energy Bands in silicon:

Before we start with energy bands in silicon,  let us know about energy bands.The energy band of any solid is a structure which describes the allowed and the forbidden values of energies for that solid. The energy band is a function of the diffracted quantum mechanical electron waves which are present in a periodic crystal lattice which have a specific crystal system and specific Bravais lattice.

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Reason behind formation of energy band in elements like silicon

As the electrons of any single isolated atom occupy several atomic orbitals which are in the form of set energy level that are discrete. If a molecule is formed by several atoms, which are brought together, the atomic levels of the atoms split and form a coupled oscillation. Similarly if a large number of atoms of the order of 1020 or more are brought together in the form of a solid, the atomic levels are very large in number and the energy difference between the two energy levels is very small which give rise to a continuous band of the energy levels.

Description of Energy Bands in Silicon

The Fermi level is one of the important levels in the energy band of any material because it determines the nature of the material i.e. the material is conductor or insulator or the semiconductor. The silicon is a semiconductor material and for it the Fermi level is exists essentially in the halfway between the valence and the conduction bands of the silicon. In silicon at 0 K temperatures there is no conduction of electron but at finite temperatures the electrons moves from valence band to the conduction band and the number of electrons which reaches the conduction band contributes for the flow of current in silicon and this current can be modeled by Fermi function.

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Conclusion for Energy Bands in Silicon

There are some intervals in the energy bands which contain no levels or the orbitals these interval forms the energy band gaps. The energy bands of any material determine several characteristics like the electronic and the optical properties of the material.