Sunday, June 9

3 Ways to Conserve Energy

Introduction to 3 ways to conserve energy:
It is necessary to conserve coal and petroleum resources of the earth by reducing their consumption so that they may last for as long as possible. Coal is used mainly to produce electricity. So, if we can save electricity, then the consumption of coal will be automatically reduced.

Conserving energy:

The petroleum products kerosene and LPG are used for cooking food, and petrol and diesel are used as fuel in motor vehicles, so if we can save on kerosene. LPG, petrol and diesel, then the consumption of petroleum will also get reduce.

Three steps to Conserve energy:

Some of the steps which can be taken to conserve energy resources are as follows:

Switch off the lights, fans television and other electrical appliances when not needed. This will save a lot of electricity. Use energy efficient electrical appliances to save electricity. This can be done by using Compact Fluorescent Lamps and Fluorescent tube lights instead of traditional filament-type electric bulbs because CFL and tube-lights consume much less electric energy as compared to filament-type electric bulbs for producing the same amount of light. Use stairs to climb at least up to three floors of a building instead of taking a lift. This will save electricity.Having problem with Elastic Potential Energy Formula keep reading my upcoming posts, i will try to help you.

Pressure cookers should be used for cooking food to save fuels like kerosene and LPG. Good quality stoves should be used to burn fuels like kerosene and cooking gas so as to obtain maximum heat. Solar cookers should be used to cook food wherever possible.

The use of bio gas as domestic fuel should be encouraged in rural areas. Bicycles should be used for covering short distances to save precious fuel like petrol. Public transport system in cities should be improved so that people do not commute in their personal vehicle. This will save a lot of petrol and diesel. Fuel efficient engines of motor vehicles should be designed to reduce the consumption of petrol and diesel.

White Light Interference

Introduction to Interference of white light:

The phenomenon of interference of light have proved the legality of light’s wave theory. Thomas Young successfully demonstrated his experiment on interference of light in 1802. When two or else more wave train acts concurrently on any constituent part in a means afterward the displacement of the particle at any instantaneous is due to the superposing of all the wave train. Also, after superimposing, the region of cross over, the wave train appear as if they have not interfered at all. Each wave train retains its individual characteristics. Each wave train behaves as if others are absent. This principle was illustrated by Huygens in 1678.

I like to share this Wave Theory of Light with you all through my article.

What is interference of light?

The interfering of light is the phenomenon of redistribution of light energy in a medium on account of superposition of light waves from two coherent sources. At the points where the resultant intensity of the light is maximum the interference is said to be the constructive one but the point where the intensity of the light is minimum the interference is named as destructive interference.

Interference of White Light

When the white light is used in interference, the center of the fringe pattern of the interference is white while the other fringes on both side of the central fringe in the interference pattern are colored shown in fig.1 because of the fringe width depends upon wavelength. The fringe width β is given by

`beta = (lambda D) / d`

Where λ is the wavelength of the light and D is the distance of the screen on which the interference pattern is observed from the slits and d is the spacing of the double slits.

Understanding Physics Torque Problems is always challenging for me but thanks to all science help websites to help me out.

Conclusion for the Interference of White Light

From the discussion on interference of white light, we conclude that the above formula indicating the fringe width varies linearly with the wavelength apart from the central fringe, the fringes on both sides of the central fringe which is bright are colored and have a pattern of increasing width and at the end when the pattern reaches the red color of the white light, the fringe is very broad and no other fringe is observed after it.

Thursday, June 6

Future of Solar Power

Introduction to the Future of Solar Power:

We can define solar energy as the limitless and as well as the clean source of energy from the sun.

The future of our solar power or energy  depends on several factors. The various factors are discussed below:

The future of solar power depends primarily on one of the factor that is its cost of production. As the  renewable energy that is  coal and other fossil fuels are much cheaper when compared with the solar power production.

Having problem with Formula for Potential Energy keep reading my upcoming posts, i will try to help you.

But the scientists are predicting grid parity. It is the point where the cost of the solar power will be equivalent to the cost of the renewable based energy. Grid parity has been achieved already that is California which produces approximately 45 kWh by using commercial solar panel rooftop systems. We can also develop grid parity for residential places to get power from the solar system as the renewable energies are getting depleted. But we will have to wait to use the solar power till the cost of solar power gets dropped or cheaper or cost effective than the renewable resources which we are using now.

As it is not cheaper or due to some technical limitations the use of solar energy is difficult now. But it will surely replace other power resources which we are using now in future by using giant solar collectors in space which can be used by grid.

Most of the small devices such as the mobiles we are using the solar power to recharge it. The price of the solar power will get reduced when all the peoples will start to use the solar power in our home and all places. Solar cars which we are using are environment friendly as it do not make the environment worst.

Global warming problems can be reduced when we will use the solar power in all the places and will make the environment cleaner.

Problem facing the future of solar power

The first problem which we are facing in the future of solar power is the the large space required to construct or build the solar power plants which will comprised of solar panels to store the energy which can be used by the grid. The construction of the new buildings with the solar panels fitted on top of the roofs so that the solar power can be easily used by the people.

It is not economical to produce such a large amount of power from sun.

The solar energy cannot be used directly from the sun.

Looking out for more help on What Does the Law of Conservation of Energy State in physics by visiting listed websites.

How to produce solar power

The solar energy is converted into electrical energy by the photo voltaic cells which can be used for domestic requirements. The electrical energy produced from the sun during the daytime is stored in the battery which can be used in the form of direct current. The inverter is used to convert DC supply to AC supply of 110V to power all the domestic lighting's and appliances.

As the solar energy is available directly from the sun freely, we do not have to bear any costs of the fuel to produce electricity from solar power and the maintenance cost of this very less almost zero.

The another problem which we are facing is that PV cells can generate only small amount of electricity and to increase this amount of power we have to use large layers of silicon slices in cells.

The Crust of the Earth

Introduction to crust of earth:

In the ancient time when the earth was formed it was very cold. This earth is called as the primitive earth. As more and more planetesimals collided with the primitive earth and stuck to it, their kinetic energy got converted into heat. Radioactive disintegration of the elements, such as Uranium, Thorium etc and contraction of earth due to gravitational force also heated the primitive earth. This heating of primitive earth gradually raises its temperature and the primitive earth melted. The molten material of the earth then began to reorganize into layered structure under the influence of gravity. During the formation of layered structure the lighter molten rose up to the surface to make the earth’s crust.

Description on crust of the earth:

There are three major layers of earth out of which the uppermost layer is called the crust of the earth. The thickness of the crust of earth varies from place to place. It lies between 35 km to 60 km under continents and about 10 km under oceans. The ocean crust is different from the continental crust. The ocean crust is made up of basalt, diabase and gabbro. The continental and the ocean crust float on the second layer of earth called mantle.   The crust of the earth generally composed of lighter elements. About 75% of the earth’s crust is covered with water. The crust of the earth is composed of igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks. The crust of the earth occupies the earth’s volume by less than 1%. The average density for the upper crust lies between 2.7 gram per cubic centimeter and 2.74 gram per cubic centimeter. The average density of the lower crust lies between 3.0 gram per cubic centimeter and 3.25 gram per cubic centimeter. The temperature of the crust of the earth increases with the depth. The temperature of the crust of the earth lies between 200° C to 400° C.  The temperature of the earth’s crust increases by 30° C for every kilometer

Understanding specific heat equation is always challenging for me but thanks to all science help websites to help me out.

Conclusion on crust of the earth:

Most of the rocks in the crust of the earth formed before 2.5 billion years ago. The interior crust of the earth makes up lithosphere. The lithosphere is converted into tectonic plates.

What is Microwave Technology

Introduction microwave technology:

The microwaves is a part of electromagnetic spectrum. Microwaves are the electromagnetic waves of frequency range 300 MHz to 300 GHz. They are produced by special vacuum tubes such as klystrons, magnetrons and Gunn diodes. There are several uses of the micro waves in the daily life. Let us discuss about the technology of the micro waves. Microwaves is used in the communication system. It is essential for carrying out all weather operations safely,used in military air crafts and for the telephonic communication.

Micro-wave Technology

The basic principle of working of the microwave is to create micro wave radiation of suitable frequency in the working space.This radiation may match the resonant frequency of rotation of water molecules which is about 3 GHz. In this situation, the energy from the waves is transferred efficiently to the kinetic energy of molecules. The microwave of this frequency is of energy equivalent to heating up water molecules. When microwaves of this particular frequency fall on food item containing water like fruits, vegetables, meat, cereals etc the water molecules absorb these radiations. Their energy increases. These molecules share their energy with neighboring food molecules. In this situation energy the Micro-wave is transferred efficiently to the kinetic energy of molecules.

I have recently faced lot of problem while learning Momentum Equation, But thank to online resources of science which helped me to learn myself easily on net.

Uses of Micro-waves

The microwaves which are used in oven, we use the porcelain container containing food for cooking remains unaffected and cool where as only the food items get heated. It is so because the large molecules of porcelain container vibrate and rotate with much smaller frequency then that of microwave and thus absorb Micro-waves. Micro waves are also used in RADAR systems so that it can detect the air craft’s and other flying objects.  The very first microwave oven has a weight of about 750 pounds or more than it. The height of this microwave is more than 5 feet and came in the market in 1947. After 1960 the microwave oven is used in the domestic sectors. It reduces the time to cook the food.

Geothermal Alternative Energy

Introduction on geothermal alternative energy:

The earth from within is very hot. The heat inside the earth, under favorable conditions can be utilized as the source of energy. This energy is called Geothermal Energy. As Geo means Earth and Thermal means heat. Thus Geo-thermal energy can be defined as “the heat energy from hot rocks present inside the earth”.

Origin of geothermal alternative energy:

We know that deeper regions of earth’s crust are very, very hot. In these regions, the rocks melt to form magma. Geological changes in some regions of the earth push up magma upward. This magma is very hot and collects at some depth below the surface of the earth. The places under the surface of earth, where the hot magma collects at fairly less depths, are called hot spots of the earth. These hot spots are sources of geothermal energy.

Harnessing of geothermal alternative energy:

1. In some geological regions of the earth, the underground water comes in contact with hot spots and change into steam. The steam gets trapped in between the underground rocks and gets compressed to high pressure. This steam coming up at high pressure is used to run turbine connected to the generator. This produces electricity.

2. In some places, the steam does not get trapped. Instead it forces its way up through the cracks in the rocks along with hot water and gushes out from the surface of the earth to form Natural geysers.

3. In some geological places, there may be hot spots, but the underground water does not come in contact with them. In such regions, two holes are made in the earth crust. Through one hole is pumped in cold water. The cold water on coming in contact with hot spot changes to super heated steam, which emerges out from the other hole. The steam is then made to run a turbine coupled with generator to produce electricity.

Wind Energy for Homes

Introduction to wind energy:

Wind energy:- As we are very much familiar with the term wind energy ,wind energy is the energy produce by wind power. This is very old way of producing energy from natural phenomenon. It is a convection current which is produce by the uneven heating of the earth surface because of this wind always changes its direction and speed continuously and the pattern in which wind changes its speed and direction in given places is fairly constant through out the year. Wind blows because hot air want to come on upper side and cold air will stay at the lower level and because of this air blow at very faster speed and we can utilize this flow of air in different purposes.

Wind energy for homes

Wind energy for homes: We can use wind energy for the moving of wind turbine to produce electricity and we can easily use electricity for our different purposes at our home. We can also utilise wind turbines for grinding grains and pumping water for house hold purposes, and we can also setup our own wind generator by which we can produce electric power only for our use and it will be very cheap method to produce such a important form of energy.

These are the house hold machines which we can easily run with the help of wind energy and we can use it for multi things at the same time. so we can see here how much wind energy is important and how we can utilise wind energy in a good way and effective way.

Understanding Formula for Gravitational Potential Energy is always challenging for me but thanks to all science help websites to help me out.

Advantages of wind energy for homes

We can use it for number of years if you setup it once.

This is one of the most cheapest source of energy and any body can afford it easily, so charges are very affordable.

We can store energy which we are producing by wind energy if our house hold requirement is down

This is natural phenomenon of producing energy so we need not depend on any body for our energy sources.

The only disadvantage of wind energy for homes is that only knowing person can handle it as it is very easy to handle but preknowledge is very important to handle it and we should know how it will give you maximum output by very less input, so knowledge of how to produce wind energy is very important.

Monday, June 3

Directional Compass

Introduction for directional compass:

A Directional compass is the device ,which gives the direction towards any sides,i.e. East ,West,North,South. This is very useful for us,in the sense  of moving to different places.It is a kind of device which is always found with the kind of different people who loves and like to visit different places.The reading a compass is not so difficult to see ,such very hard work to do as it is something which depends on the way we place the compass there is the a proper format to do all this prospect .When we place it,the compass gives the direction with degree also.The degree which may be in the form of  15 degree or may be in the form of ratio.There are different types of compass , one is the analog which will be place in the direction manually and the other is one which reads the direction automatically.The analog one is available in the market for normal people.Other is digital used for research purpose.I like to share this Newtons 3rd Law of Motion with you all through my article.

The compass are also of many type one is the analog which is place in the direction manually and other is one which reads the direction automatically.The analog one is  available in the market for a lesser cost.Other one is digital compass which is mainly used  for scientific activities,for research purpose,military and navigation purpose, and for surveying.There are enhanced functions are there in digital compass such as altitude measurement,atmospheric measurement etc developed by various sensors and electronic system which serves the purpose

Advantages of Using Directional Compass

The person will never lose his way.

The thing which is place some where Far can be found easily.

It useful when the people or group of members has gone for any mission.So the compass gives the direction about the side and degree in mountains.

The other profit is the compass is very easy to read and give the direction according to the place.

It is better to use a digital compass which will not betray in the way of  showing the direction.

Properties of a Compass

A good compass should not be inclined to any on the side.

The compass should be able to differentiate between the poles and normal place.

There are other constraint about the kind of land and angle the digital compass although has all the quality.

Milky Way Center

Introduction to milky way center:

Milky way  having a huge group of stars and spatial bodies .Our sun belongs to milky way galaxy While we look at the sky there are infinite numbers of stars. The common question that arises in our minds is how the stars are distributed in the space. Astronomers found that the stars are occurred in the huge groups. These large groups  of stars are called as the  Galaxies.

Explanation about the milky way galaxy center:

Galaxy:  This is a part of universe that has a huge group of stars and other celestial bodies nebulae, and interstellar material bound together by gravitational force is called as Galaxy.

Milky way galaxy having a  huge group of stars in the galaxy is held together by the gravitational attraction between them. A part from stars this  milky way galaxy having a huge cloud of gases at the center which  called as Nebulae (Birth place of new stars) A milky way galaxy may have planets and other celestial bodies. The minimum stars that contain in the  smallest galaxies are about 1000,000  stars  while  the  largest  contain  up  to  3000  billion  stars. It is estimated that there are around 100 billion galaxies in the universe. One important thing is Sun belongs to Milky Way Galaxy.Understanding fourth state of matter is always challenging for me but thanks to all science help websites to help me out.

Galaxy types-Milky way center

Types of galaxies:

Galaxies have different shapes and based on the shape of alignment of the stars it has divided into three types

Spiral galaxies

elliptical galaxies

Irregular galaxies.

Elliptical and Irregular galaxies

Spiral galaxies:

In a spiral galaxy the stars forms a big spiral pinwheel with radiating from the from the central hub. The Milky Way galaxy is an example of spiral galaxy. The word milky way word name derived from the Roman word “via galactic” which means the road of milk. Most of the galaxies in the milky way galaxy lie in a disc shaped region called galactic disc.

The central part of the disc is thicker and bulges on both the sides like a old fashioned sandwiched toaster. The density of stars in the bulge region is higher than the outer side. Starting from the center bulged region group of stars spread out of arms our sun is located in one spiral arms .The sun takes about 250 million years to complete one revolution around the galactic center.

Elliptical galaxies:

In an elliptical galaxy the stars are confined to a region mainly in ellipsoid volume.Here the group of stars in this galaxy shapes like egg like structure.Hence it got it names as elliptical structure. The elliptical galaxies are described by the American scientist “Hubble”.Most Elliptical galaxies are composed of older low mass stars with interstellar medium.These type of galaxies will be around 10-15% in the universe.

Irregular galaxies:

In irregular galaxy the alignment of group of stars are fashioned in a irregular manner .It doe not having a peculiar shape. Hence they got the name irregular galaxies. This type of galaxies is useful in understand the overall evolution of the galaxies. These are having a low Metallicity rate and high level of gases and seem to be the earliest galaxies that populated in the universe.

AC DC Current Difference

Introduction to AC DC current difference:

The electric current is the very basic and the important form of the energy. If there is no electricity, it affects our life a lot. There are two types of the electric current. One is called the alternating current (a.c) and the other is called the direct current (d.c). In our house holds the electricity coming form the power houses, this is the alternating current and the electric current which we get directly from a primary cell or the secondary cell is called the direct current. Here we discuss about the differences between the direct current and the alternating current.Please express your views of this topic Transfer of Heat by commenting on blog.

AC DC Current Difference:

The alternating current is the time varying current, which is alternating in the nature that means the direction is changing after every fixed interval of time. The direct current is also a time varying current but it is unidirectional current. The alternating current is representing by the sine function like I = I0 Sin wt, where w is the angular frequency of the alternating current and t be the instantaneous time. The direct current is simple represented by the I. The alternating current is the current which can travel with a large distances without being a large loss in energy while the direct current cannot travel through the long distances without any loss. The alternating current can travel only at the surface area of the wire that is why the wires carry the alternating current is the combination of large number of very thin wires. This effect of the alternating current is called the skin effect. The direct current can pass through the interior of the wire. We cannot use the capacitor or the inductor in the direct current devices because the frequency of the direct current is zero. In the alternating current, we cannot use the ohm’s law because there are three types of the resistances used, such as the inductance, capacitance and the ohmic resistance.

Conclusion of AC DC differences:

The alternating current is more dangerous than the direct current. The shock of the alternating current is repulsive while the shock of the direct current is attractive in nature. If we get the shock of 220 V that is the reading of the ac voltmeter that means we get the shock of the peak value of the ac voltage that means we get the shock of 220 × 1.414 V.

JJ Thomson Cathode Ray

Introduction to JJ Thomson cathode ray

JJ Thomson received the Nobel prize in 1906 for his revolutionary work on the discovery of electrons.

He discovered electrons from the minute observations while performing the cathode ray tube experiment.

He added a number of enhancements in the cathode ray tube experiment, the results of which proved that there did exist subatomic particles. Prior to the discovery of electrons by JJ Thomson, all scientists believed that atoms were the smallest units of matter and they were indivisible.I like to share this Examples of Momentum with you all through my article.

Description of JJ Thompson cathode ray tube experiment

The cathode ray tube experiment comprises of the following arrangement:-

A long glass tube called the cathode ray tube is taken and evacuated so that air pressure inside it falls to a very low value - around 10^-2 to 10^-6 Pascals.

A metal cathode and a metal anode are fixed inside the two ends of the cathode ray tube described above.

The metal anode is connected to the positive terminal of a battery and is thus also called as the positive electrode.

The metal cathode is connected to the negative terminal of the battery and is thus also called as the negative electrode.

When electric current passed through the circuit, fluorescent green rays called the cathode rays were emitted from cathode and traveled towards the anode.

Observations and conclusions of JJ Thomson from the cathode ray tube experiment

JJ Thomson observed the following points from the cathode ray tube experiment that led him to the discovery of electrons.

Observations and their corresponding conclusions

The cathode rays were attracted by the positively charged anode - thus, the cathode rays were negatively charged.

The cathode rays were deflected by electric and magnetic fields - this further proves that they were negatively charged.

The cathode rays cast shadow of an object kept in their path - this proves that they travel in straight lines.

The cathode rays cause a light paper wheel kept in their path to rotate about its axis - this proves that they are composed of particles of some kind, because only matter can cause matter to move.

These were the main observations made by JJ Thomson in his cathode ray tube experiment. Thus, he concluded that the cathode rays consisted of some negatively charged particles called electrons, and thus, an atom could not be indivisible. The discovery of electrons in the beginning of the 20th century marked the beginning of a century of further discoveries that would introduce new concepts in science.

Paramagnetism and Diamagnetism

Introduction to Paramagnetism and Diamagnetism:

1. Diamagnetic substances are those which have tendency to move from stronger to the weaker part of the extended magnetic field.  In other words, unlike the way a magnet attracts metals like iron, it would repel a diamagnetic substance.

2. Paramagnetic substances are those which get weakly magnetized when placed in an external magnetic field.  They have tendency to move from a region to weak magnetic field to strong magnetic field i.e. they get weakly attracted to a magnate.

Diamagnetism: paramagnetism and diamagnetism

Diamagnetism: The simplest explanation for diamagnetism is as follows:

(a)Electron in an atom orbiting around nucleus possess orbital angular momentum.  These orbiting electrons are equivalent to current carrying loop and thus possess orbital magnetic movement.

(b)Diamagnetic substances are those ones in which resultant magnetic movement in a atom is zero.  When magnetic field is applied those electrons having orbital magnetic movement in the same directions slow down and those in the oppo0site direction speed up.  This happens due to induced current in accordance with the lenz’s law.

(c)Some diamagnetic materials are bismuth, copper, lead, silicon, nitrogen, water and sodium chloride.

(d)Diamagnetism is present in all the substances.  However, the effect is so weak in most cases that it gets shifted by other effects like paramagnetism, ferromagnetism etc.

(e)The most exotic diamagnetic material are super conductors.  These are metals, cool to very low temperatures which exhibits both perfect conductivity and perfect diamagnetism.  A superconductor repels a magnet and is repelled by the magnet.

Paramagnetism: paramagnetism and diamagnetism


(a)The individual atoms of a paramagnetic material posses a permanent magnetic dipole movement of their own.  On account of the ceaseless random thermal motion of the atoms, no net magnetization is seen.

(b)In the presence of external field, which is strong enough, and at low temperature, the individual atomic dipole movement can be made to align and point in the same direction as the external field.

(c)Some paramagnetic materials are aluminium, sodium, calcium, oxygen and copper chloride. Experimentally, one finds that the magnetization of a paramagnetic material is inversely proportional to the absolute temperature T.

M = CB0/T

This is known as Curie’s law.

Friday, May 31

Physical Weathering of Rocks

Introduction to Weathering:

Weathering is a process where the earth’s rocks, soil, and mineral break down due to the direct contact with the planet’s atmosphere. The weathering occurs due to no movement, this is called as ‘situ’. The man-made structures also face weathering problems due to atmospheric exposure. Weathering is of two types, physical weathering, here the breakdown of the rocks and soil is due to the atmospheric conditions such as ice, water, heat, and pressure.Another type is chemical weathering, it is a process where the earth’s rocks and soil breaks down due to the effect of the earth’s atmospheric chemical directly on them.Please express your views of this topic Internal Energy Equation by commenting on blog.

Physical Weathering:

In physical weathering abrasion is the primary process, the physical and chemical process are inter related, as the cracks created by the physical process are increased in the surface area by the chemical reactions on it.

Type in physical weathering:

Thermal stress: Thermal stress weathering is process which causes due to the expansion and contraction of the rocks as a result of temperature change. This is more common in the desert and the regions where the temperature is higher in the day time and cooler at the night.
Frost weathering: This type of weathering is common in the regions where the temperature is nearer to or around the freezing point of water. Here the soil or rocks get cracked due to the low temperatures
Pressure release: Here the materials which is not necessarily rocks having a heavy mass are removed or it is also known as unloading of overlaying materials. This is done by some erosion or other processes. As these over laying materials are heavy they create pressure on the underlying materials.
Hydraulic action: This action occurs in the rock face when the water rushes rapidly in the cracks. At the bottom of the crack the water and a layer of air gets trapped, this causes explosion when the wave retreats which results in crack widening.

5 Forms of Energy

Energy represents itself in various forms. For a physics student it is required that he must be aware of all these forms. In this article we shall discuss the 5 forms of Energy.I like to share this Heat Transfer Rate with you all through my article.

Introduction to the 5 forms of Energy
Energy is defined as the amount of work done by a force.
Energy can neither be created nor be destroyed. It can only be changed from one form to another.
Five forms of energy:
(a) Heat energy

(b) Internal energy

(c) Electrical energy

(d) Chemical energy

(e) Nuclear energy

Description of 5 forms of energy

1. Heat energy :It is the energy possessed by a body by virtue of random motion of the molecules of the body.

2. Internal energy : It is the total energy possessed by the body by virtue of particular configuration on its molecules and also their random motion.  Does internal energy of the body is the some of potential and kinetic energies of the molecules of the body.  Potential energy is due to configuration of the molecules against inter molecular forces and kinetic energy is due to random motion of the molecules.

3. Electrical energy : Electrical energy arises on account of work required to be done in moving the free charge carriers in a particular direction through a conductor.

5 forms of Energy (cont.)

4. Chemical energy : Chemical energy of a body, say a chemical compound is the energy possessed by it by virtue of chemical bonding of its atoms.  The chemical energy becomes available in a chemical reaction.  Chemical energy arises from the fact that the molecules participating in the chemical reaction have different binding energies.  A stable chemical compound has less energy then the separated parts.  A chemical reaction is basically a rearrangement of atoms.

5. Nuclear energy : Nuclear energy is the ;energy obtainable  from an atomic nuclear.  Two distinct modes of obtaining nuclear energy are :

(a)             Nuclear fission

(b)             Nuclear fusion

Nuclear fission involves splitting of a heavy nucleus into two or more lighter nuclei, where as nuclear fusion involves fusing of two or more lighter nuclei to form a heavy nucleus.

Importance of Atmosphere

Introduction to importance of atmosphere:

The envelope of the air which surrounds our earth is called “atmosphere”. In fact, we the human beings and other living organisms live at the bottom of an ocean of air. The atmosphere extends to a height of 120 Km. It is present everywhere on the earth. All living beings need air in one form or another form. Atmosphere is divided into four major layers: Troposphere, Stratosphere, Mesosphere and Thermosphere. The composition of the components of air keeps on changing on the account of following reasons:

Atmosphere is a mixture of gases of different densities among which water vapour is one of the lightest gases, followed by nitrogen, oxygen and carbon dioxide.
There is a drop in temperature and pressure with the increase of height.

Importance of Atmosphere:

Atmosphere plays an important role in the formation of clouds, occurrence of rain and formation of snow. It prevents certain harmful radiations from reaching the surface of the earth. It also helps in the formation of winds. The studies on atmosphere also help in making weather forecasts. The weather forecasts help us in taking necessary measures to prevent loss of human life, cattle and crops due to torrential rainfall, cloud brusts, cyclones and dry spells. It also facilitate in taking appropriate measures against droughts and floods. In a way, weather forecasts help us in disaster management.

Importance of Atmosphere:

The envelope of air protects all living beings from the harmful ultraviolet radiations coming from the sun. These rays can cause skin cancer and various health problems, If they reaches our earth. It plays an important role in the formation of winds. Fast moving winds are used for running windmills. The windmills are used for drawing underground water, flour mills and for generating electricity. Winds do help in the movement of sailing ships, gliders etc. Due to presence of atmosphere, transmission of sound is possible. Some musical instruments work only due to presence of atmosphere. The presence of atmosphere enables earth to maintain suitable temperature on the earth for the survival of the living beings.

Ordinary Dry Cell

Introduction to ordinary dry cell:

The best known voltaic cell for commercial use is the ordinary dry cell. The dry cell which we use in torches, transistor radios, toys and laboratory experiments, was invented by Lechlanche in 1868. The dry cell converts chemical energy into electric energy. A single dry cell gives a voltage of 1.5 volts.

Construction of ordinary dry cell

A dry cell consists of a carbon rod placed at the centre of a zinc container. The space between the carbon rod and the zinc container is filled with a moist paste of ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) and zinc chloride (ZnCl2) mixed with manganese dioxide and powdered carbon. In dry cell, the carbon rod acts as a positive electrode (cathode); the zinc container act as a negative electrode (anode); and the ammonium chloride and zinc chloride acts as electrolyte. Manganese dioxide removes the hydrogen gas formed during the working of dry cell (by oxidising it), and prevent it settling on the positive electrode of the cell (so that it may not interfere with the working of the cell).

How ordinary dry cell works:

Actually, manganese dioxide works as depolariser (depolariser is a chemical which removes hydrogen and prevent it settling on the positive elctrode of the cell). powdered Carbon present in the dry cell helps in the movement of charges between the electrodes in the cell and hence reduces the internal resistance of the cell. Please note that a dry cell is not completely dry. The presence of little water in the miost paste is essential for the movement of ions.The dry cell is sealed at the top with the sealing wax to prevent evaporation of moisture and the carbon rod has a brass cap for better electrical contact. The zinc container has an outer insulation of card board case. The card board case, however does not cover the bottom of the cell. In dry cell , the zinc container is the producer of electrons for the usable current.

Geothermal Resources

Introduction to geothermal resources:

Geothermal energy is the heat from inside the earth, a kind of domestic energy which is reliable, cost effective and environmentally friendlier than other conventional sources of energy. It is released at an average heat flux of 60 mW/m2 by conduction. It is used for direct-heat use and electrical power generation.

Through production wells hot water is pumped up from the underground reservoir for generation of electricity, and then converted to steam by discharge of pressure. The steam is led into a turbine engine, which turns a generator. Remaining geothermal fluid is goes back into the reservoir to maintain its pressure.

Resources for geothermal energy

The global tectonic plates dictate the location of geothermal resources. Geo-dynamic processes like subsidence, sub-duction, uplift, fracturing result in geothermal features like volcanism and hydrothermal convection.

Common geothermal resources are:

A deep simple hot rock or magma body.

Heat carrying fluid.

Fractured or spongy rock.

Top rocks provide an insulating cover

The general geothermal resources need a fluid for heat transfer.

For direct-heat application, heat is extracted from the geothermal water at temperatures less than 120 o C which is used for greenhouse, home heating, vegetable drying and other small scale industries. The hot water spent, is used for direct application.

Technology and Resource Type

Geothermal resources  can be just liquid water, dry, a mixture of steam and water or mainly steam and varies in temperature from 30-350 o C. Water is the medium to transfer geothermal heat from the earth which is naturally occurring in most places but modern technologies extract this energy from hot dry rock resources. The temperature of the resource indicates the type of technologies required or its uses.

Conclusion to geothermal resources

Geothermal electric plants are built on the edges of tectonic plates as high temperature geothermal resources are available close to the surface

There are approximately 8,000 MW of generating and 12,000 MW of direct use geothermal resources world-wide.

Sunday, May 26

Iintroduction to Nuclear Physics

Introduction to nuclear physics:

Matter, right from a tiny speck of dust to a gigantic cosmic entity consists  of atoms. An atom consists of a central part called nucleus around which electrons will revolve. Another question comes to our mind is that whether a nucleus too have a structure like an atom? If so, what is the nature of its constituents and how are they held together in the nucleus? In unfolding such series of questions, a separate branch in physics called  Nuclear physics has evolved.Having problem with Linear Speed Formula keep reading my upcoming posts, i will try to help you.

Introduction to Nuclear Physics by Henri Becquerel

The year 1896, marks the beginning of nuclear physics. It is in this year, the French physicist Henri Becquerel discovered the phenomenon of radioactivity in one of he Uranium compounds, quite accidentally. The phenomenon of radioactivity refers to a particular type of invisible radiation emerging from certain specific substances. At first sight, this radiation was quite puzzling for scientists. Later on the experiments conducted by Ernst Rutherford and others proved that this radiation consists of alpha, beta and gamma rays. This rays were found to be originating in the  nucleus. The experiments conducted by Geiger and Ernst  Marsden, at the suggestion of Rutherford in 1911, involving the scattering of alpha particles have revealed that there exists a positively charged nucleus at the centre of each atom. It was James Chadwick's discovery of neutron in 1932 that clinched the issue of nuclear structure.

Conclusion on Introduction to Nuclear Physics

After the discovery of neutron Werner Heisenberg proposed that the nucleus consists of neutrons and protons. The discovery of artificial radioactivity in 1933 and nuclear fission in 1938, development of first controlled fission reactor in 1942 are some of the important milestones in the field of nuclear physics.

More recently, the scientists are focusing on the nature of nuclear forces and are trying to integrate electro weak force ( which resulted after integrating electromagnetic force and weak nuclear force) ,  strong nuclear force and gravitational force.

Subtracting Vectors Physics

Introduction to Subtracting Vectors Physics

Man's curiosity to know 'nature ' always drives him to evolve new concepts, and identify new relationships among physical quantities. The relationship among the quantities may be of algebraic or geometric in nature. It is cumbersome to represent the relationships geometrically in three dimensions. The concept of vectors and scalars solves this issue. Equations in vector form indicate both mathematical and geometrical relationships among the quantities. Physical laws in vector form and very compact, and independent of choice of coordinate system.I like to share this Displacement Vector with you all through my article.

Subtracting Vectors in Physics : Definition of Vectors

A vector is characterised by an absolute value(magnitude) and a direction. The vector, as a mathematical object, is defined as a directed line segment. Displacement, velocity acceleration, force momentum, angular momentum are a few examples of vector quantities.

A vector is geometrically represented by an arrow. Length of the arrow is proportional to the magnitude of the vector; head of the arrow gives the sense of direction. A displacement vector is represented as an arrow. The initial point( or tail ) of the vector is A, the final point (or head) is B. The length AB ( measured to a scale ) is the magnitude of the vector. The direction of the vector is specified by the angle (in counter clock - wise direction) the arrow makes with a reference line. The magnitude of the displacement is 30m. Its direction is 300 north of east.  In print a vector is represented by a single bold type letter such as d .

Subtraction of Vectors in Physics

Before the operation of subtraction is taken up it is convenient of define negative of a vector.  Negative of a vector is another vector having same magnitude but opposite direction. When a vector and its negative vector are added the resultant is Zero .

i.e.,  a + (-a) = 0. It is said that -a is anti parallel to a.

The concept of negative vector enables one to carry out subtraction of vectors. If vector b is subtracted from vectors a then add -b ( negative of vector b) to a.

a + (-b)  =  a - b

Uranium Nuclear Fuel

Introduction to Uranium nuclear fuel:

The basic fuel materials for the generation of nuclear power are the elements Uranium and Thorium. Of these, Uranium has played a major rule. Uranium is by no means a rare substance and it has been estimated to be around 4ppm of the earth’s crust. In fact, Uranium is more abundant  than relatively familiar elements such us silver, mercury, bismuth and cadmium. Although the estimated total weight of Uranium in the earth’s crust is 1014 metric tons yet most deposits are of such a low grade that the extraction of the metal would appear to be uneconomical. Uranium is extracted from the ores containing primary minerals Pitchblende and Uraninite (UO2  and  U3O8). Uranium is solvent extracted to finally produce ‘yellow cake’ containing 75% to 85% of  U3O8.  This is subjected to further treatment leading to almost pure Hexafluoride (UF6) as a product.  Uranium dioxide (UO2), Uranium metal, Uranium carbide and Uranium nitride are some of the final products that will be used as reactor fuel.Please express your views of this topic Definition of Torque by commenting on blog.

Uranium metal fuel:

Metallic Uranium was used as a fuel in most of the earlier nuclear reactors, largely because it provides the maximum number of Uranium atoms per unit volume. Since it has poor mechanical properties and great susceptibility to radiation damage, Uranium metal fuel  is not used in power reactors in many countries. It was used as a fuel in the older gas-cooled reactors.

Uranium dioxide nuclear fuel:

Uranium dioxide (UO2) , a ceramic which is the most common fuel material in commercial power reactors, has the advantages of high-temperature, stability and adequate resistance to radiation. It also has a high melting point of 2865oC and is chemically inert to attack by hot water. It is this property which makes it attractive for use in water- cooled reactors, where the consequences of a cladding failure could be catastrophic if the fuel material reacted readily with the water at the existing high temperature. Another beneficial property of Uranium dioxide is its ability to retain a large proportion of the fission gases provided the temperature does not exceed about 1000oC. The major disadvantage of Uranium dioxide as a fuel material is its low thermal conductivity, although this is partially offset by the fact that very high temperatures are permissible in the centre of the fuel element.

Solar Wind Geothermal

Introduction to solar, wind and geothermal energy:

Renewable energy comes from natural resources like sunlight, tides, wind, rain and geothermal heat. Three major renewable energy resources are wind power, solar energy and geothermal energy. Advantage of renewable energy is that they are inexhaustible, environmentally friendly with low dangerous pollutant emissions.

Solar energy

Solar energy is derived from the sun in the form of solar radiation. Electrical generation by solar power relies on heat engines and photovoltaic. Solar applications include day lighting, solar architecture, solar cooking, solar hot water and for industrial purposes.

Solar technologies can be classified as passive or active, depending on the method of intake, conversion and distribution of solar energy. Active solar techniques include solar thermal collectors and photovoltaic panels to harness the energy. Passive solar techniques include selecting materials, orienting to the Sun, light dispersing properties, and designing spaces that naturally circulate air.

Advantages and disadvantages of wind energy

Flow of air is used to run wind turbines which provide a source of clean and renewable energy for homes or business. Small wind energy devices generate power very cost effectively.

Wind turbines range from 600 kW to 5 MW of power. The power output is the cube of the wind speed, hence power output increases as the wind speed increases. Offshore and high altitude areas where winds are stronger are preferred for wind farms.


Wind energy is friendly to the surrounding environment,

Wind turbines take up less space than a power station.

The wind is free.

Wind turbines can generate energy in remote locations.


The winds unreliability factor, which can be too low to support a wind turbine or wind farm,

Wind turbines produce less electricity than fossil- fueled power station; hence multiple wind turbines are needed to make an impact.

Construction can be very expensive.

The noise pollution from commercial wind turbines is sometimes similar to a small jet engine.

Geothermal power energy

The earth contains a large amount of energy in the form of heat. Geothermal energy is obtained by using the earth's heat from kilometers deep into the Earth's crust or from some meters. All this geothermal energy has the potential to generate power to provide electricity.

Three different types of geothermal energy power plants are used to generate power: flash, dry steam and binary.

The best advantage of geothermal energy is that they are useful even in cold regions like Norway and Sweden by using ground source heat pumps.

Experience Weightlessness

Introduction to experiencing weightlessness

As we know that the earth attracts every another body towards its centre. The force with which the earth attracts another bodies is called the weight. The weight of the body on the earth is equal to the product of the mass of the body and the acceleration due to gravity of earth. Here we can say that the weight = mass × acceleration due to gravity = mg. The value of acceleration due to gravity (g) is not constant throughout the earth. The weight of the body changes as the value of the acceleration due to gravity changes. Here we discuss in which situation the weight of the body becomes zero that means the condition of the body is weightlessness.I like to share this Units for Acceleration with you all through my article.

Experiencing weightlessness and conditions related to it

The weight mg of the body is also known as the true weight or the static weight of the body. We become conscious for our weight, only when weight is opposed by some other object. Actually, the secret of measuring the weight of the body with the weighing machine lies in fact that as we place the body on the weighing machine, the weighing machine opposes the weight of the body. The reaction of the weighing machine gives the weight of the body. There are four main conditions in which the body becomes weightlessness. The four conditions are as follow:

(i) When the body falling freely under the gravity the weight of the body is zero. For example, a lift is falling freely; any ball falling from the tower etc. experiences the weightlessness.

(ii) When the satellite revolves in the orbit around the earth experiences weightlessness. The gravitational force acting towards the centre of the earth balances by the centripetal force acting on the body so that the weight is zero.

(iii) When the bodies are at null point in the outer space. After the certain height, the gravitational pull of the earth becomes less and it is more for moon so that the body will feel the attraction force towards the moon. At that particular height where the gravity of the earth balances by the gravity of moon, the body experiences weightlessness.

(iv) When we reach at the center of the earth, we feel weightlessness. As the value of the acceleration due to gravity at the centre of the earth is zero and so, the weight of the body at the centre of the earth is also zero.

Conclusion of experiencing weightlessness

Weightlessness causes very serious problems to the astronauts. It becomes quite difficult for them to control their movements. Everything in the artificial satellite has to be kept tied down. To overcome this problem we create the artificial gravity so that they do not feel the weightlessness.

Friday, May 24

What Is Synchronous Motor

Introduction to what is synchronous motor

A synchronous motor (electric) is the another name of alternating current motor which converts the electrical energy into some mechanical energy. In the working of the  synchronous motor the rotor is spinning with the coils and then develops the magnetic field which is used to rotates the motor. Synchronous motor’s speed is determined by  pair numbers of the magnetic poles and the number of oscillations of the electric current (a.c) which is the alternating source of electricity.

Description of Synchronous Motor

The availability of the synchronous motors are in the sub fractional and self excited sizes to very high power and operating on the direct current also. The two types of the synchronous motors, which are used generally: one is non excited synchronous motor and the other is direct current excited synchronous motor. The non excited synchronous motors are constructed on the basis of the idea of reluctance and hysteresis designs, and they starts by the are self circuits and they do not require no any excitation supply of the energy. The reluctance design motors have 30 horse power efficiency. In the synchoronous motors there is a need of low torque and we can use these in the instrumentation applications. Synchronous motors are having the toothed rotors in some designs. The main parts of the synchronous motor are:

(i) the startor is the outer part as a shell of the motor which carries the armature windings, this winding is distributed for poly phase alternating current. The armature creates the rotating magnetic field.

(ii) the rotor is the moving part of the synchronous motor. The permanent magnet is produced by the field due to the windings.

(iii) the function of the slip rings in rotor is to supply the direct current to the windings of the wires in the direct current excited type synchronous motors.

Uses of synchronous Motor

Almost the synchronous motors of low horse power are used to provide the constant speed. The synchronous motors of high horse power are used for converting the energy  alternating current in the work which is useful for the different purposes in the heavy industries and the important use is that it work on power factor having value unity, that means the power loss is negligible.

Energy From The Sun Is Called

Introduction on energy from the sun is called:

The energy from sun is called Solar Energy. In fact, the best form of energy available to us is “SOLAR ENERGY”. The sun is the source of all energy. The sun provides us heat and light energy free of cost. The energy obtained from the sun is called solar energy. The nuclear fusion reactions taking place inside the sun keep on liberating enormous amounts of heat and light energy. This heat and light energy is radiated by the sun in all directions in the form of solar energy. The sun has been radiating an enormous amount of energy at the present rate for nearly 5 billions years and will continue radiating energy at that rate for nearly 5 billion years more. Since, the sin is very far away only a small fraction of the solar energy radiated by the sun reaches the outer layer of the earth’s atmosphere. A little less than half of the atmosphere actually reaches the surface of earth. The rest of solar energy is reflected back into space by the atmosphere and also absorbed by the atmosphere as it comes down through it towards the surface of the earth.

Advantages of solar energy

The best form of energy,solar energy which reaches the earth is absorbed by land and water-bodies as well as by plants. The solar energy trapped by land and water-bodies causes many phenomena in nature like winds, storms, rain, snowfall and sea-waves. The plants utilize solar energy to prepare food by the process of photosynthesis. The various sources of energy derive their energy from the sun, the best source of energy.

1. Non-renewable sources of energy, fossil fuels also derive their energy from sun. It is solar energy, which is converted into petroleum and oil.

2. Solar energy does not cause any pollution as compared to non-renewable sources of energy.

3. The solar energy is best form of energy because it is available in a diffused form so it is available to almost everyone on the earth.

Conclusion to solar energy

Finally ,the best source of energy, that is , solar energy is clean. It is a clean alternative to fossil fuels and nuclear power and it will never run out. It’s silent. Solar power can be captured anywhere without creating noise pollution that might otherwise up set neighbours and wildlife. It works wherever the sun shines. It doesn’t matter how remote, solar can generate energy where no other form of power can be obtained. Thus, no danger of damaging our already damaged environment further and you can be part of the Green initiative, lower your carbon footprint, and save our planet from harmful greenhouse gases.

Regular and Diffuse Reflection

Introduction to Regular and Diffused Reflection

When light traveling in one medium strikes a boundary leading to another medium, a part of incident light is through back into the original medium one. This phenomenon is called reflection of light.

Reflection is of two types:

Regular reflection
Irregular reflection or diffuse reflection

Description to regular and diffuse reflection

1.    Regular reflection: When the reflection surface is smooth and well polished, the parallel rays falling on it are reflected parallel to another one, the reflected light goes in one particular direction. This is regular reflection. The smooth and well polished surface is called mirror. Silver metal is one of the best reflectors of light. So, ordinary mirrors are made by depositing a thin layer of silver metal on one side of a plane glass sheet. The silver layer is protected by a coat of red paint. The reflection of light in a mirror takes place at the silver surface. A plane mirror is represented by a straight line, with a number of short, oblique lines showing back of the mirror.

2.    Diffuse reflection: When the reflecting surface is rough, the parallel rays falling on it are reflected in different direction. Such a reflection is known as diffuse reflection or irregular reflection or even scattering of light. In this, a surface will behave as a smooth surface as long as the surfaces variations are small as compared to the wavelength of incident light. As wavelength of visible light is very small therefore, every surface acts as a rough surface and scattering of light or irregular reflection is more common. For example, any object in a room can be seen from all the parts of the room. This is because surface of the object is rough and it scatters or reflects light in all directions.

Regular and Diffused Reflection : Summary

Reflection of light is the phenomenon of bouncing back of light in the same medium on striking the surface of any object.

Different Ways to Conserve Energy

Introduction to different ways of conserving energy:

When energy is saved, the demand for fossil fuels as oil, coal and natural gas is reduced. Less use of fossil fuels means less pollution, lower emissions of carbon dioxide and less global warming.Below is a house that uses various renewable energy and acts as an example for various ways to conserve energy.

Ways of conserving energy

Plant large, shady trees and paint a dark color to a house in a cold climate or a light color to a house in a warm climate. Trees absorb carbon dioxide from the air and give out oxygen.

Do not leave house hold appliances like Air Conditioner, computer, television, radio etc. on while you are out or when not needed.

Do not cool or warm areas that people are not in and close doors and windows in unused rooms.

Replace light bulbs with energy saving fluorescent bulbs.

Air dishes and clothes whenever possible.

Set lower temperature for the thermostat in the water heater, refrigerator and other heating or cooling devices to reduce electricity consumption. This cuts off the current supply sooner than; this is more efficient than using very hot water and then mixing it with cold water before for use.

Use solar water heaters.

Clean air filters regularly in the air conditioners. Free passage of air doesn't stress the device and thus reduce current.

Insulate doors, roofs and windows to reduce leakage of hot or cool air.

Use dishwasher and clothes washer at full capacity to as multiple usage increases electricity consumption.

Whenever possible get a walk, use mass transit or car pool than using your car daily. This reduces fuel consumption.

Use energy efficient appliances- with energy star label; though expensive, they use less current and reduce pollution and over a period of time save money.

Recycle and reuse whenever possible. Avoid packaged products and go for recyclable ones as they reduce pollution.

ways of conserving energy

Conclusion to different ways to conserve energy

From the discussion on conserving energy, we conclude that besides conserving energy, think of ways to use alternative sources of energy like, solar power, wind power, human powered mechanical energy etc.

Diffuse Reflection

Introduction to diffuse reflection:

The light rays travels in the straight line. The ray of light travels with the velocity of 3 × 108 metre per second. If the ray of light travels from one medium to another medium it suffers refraction due to the change in the velocity of light in different mediums. If the ray of light falls on the smooth and polished surface it suffers reflection. Here we discuss about reflection.I like to share this Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics with you all through my article.

Diffused reflection:

The bouncing back of the light rays after striking from the highly polished and the smooth surfaces is called reflection. The image formed on retina so the we can see the objects is the very important example of reflection. As the rays of light falls on any object, the rays are reflected from the object and then enter in our eye. Now from the refraction of the eye lens the image of the object is formed on the retina. After that, the optical nerves carry the optical signals to the mind as the mind gives the permission to see the object we can see the image of the object very clearly. The reflection are of two types: one is called the specular or regular reflection and the other is diffused or irregular reflection. In the case of regular reflection, it obeys the laws of reflection completely but in case of the diffused reflection, it does not obey the laws of reflection completely. The diffused reflections are done by the non-polished or the slightly polished and non smooth or rough surfaces. As the rays of light falls on a rough and non-polished surface at any angle of incidence then the angle of reflection is not equal to the angle of incidence. Here the rays of light do not follow the first law of reflection. Similarly, the normal to the reflecting surface, incident ray and the reflected ray are not lie in the same plane, so the rays of light do not follow the second law of reflection.

Examples of the diffused reflection measurement:

The examples of the diffused reflection are the reading of newspaper or reading of a notebook. As we read the newspaper the images of the letters can be produce on the retina. Similarly, the ray of light from our body is reflected but the reflection is diffused so that we cannot see our image on the newspaper.

Thursday, May 23

Rotating Magnetic Field

Introduction to Rotating Magnetic Field:

A rotating magnetic field is a kind of magnetic field which ideally changes its direction at an angular rate which is constant. In the working of a motor that works on alternating current, the rotating magnetic field plays a key role as it is associated with its principle of operation. The concept of rotating magnetic field was introduced by Nikola Tesla in 1882. Galileo Ferrari's has done his research independently to introduce some more features of this concept in 1885.

Production of Rotating Magnetic Field

A rotating magnetic field which is symmetric can be produced using as few as three coils. To produce a rotating magnetic field, three coils should be driven by a symmetric three phase a.c. current and one of the phases is shifted to 120 degrees as compared to the other phase. In this case the magnetic filed should be taken as the linear function of the current which is flowing in the coil. The three phases which are 120 degrees out of phase compare to each other when applied to the axis of the alternating current motor then it produces a single rotating vector. This rotating vector follows the magnetic field in the coil and hence produces a rotating magnetic field .

Application of Rotating Magnetic Field

Rotating magnetic fields can also be used in the induction motors because the magnets, which are used, degrades with time and the induction motor use the short circuited rotor instead of a magnet, which is easily follow the rotating magnetic field produced by a stator, which is multi coiled. In the case of the induction motor, the turns of the rotor which is short circuited, develops the eddy current in the rotating magnetic field of the stator which is used to move the rotor by the developed Lorentz force. Such motors are generally not synchronous but they have involved a necessary degree of the slip by which the current will be produced due to the relative motion of the field and the rotor.

4 Simple Machines

Introduction to Simple Machines:

A simple machine is nothing but a kind of mechanical device which is used to change either the direction of the applied force or the magnitude of the given force. Generally the simple machines are defined in the simple way as the simplest mechanisms which are used to get the mechanical advantage, which is also called the leverage of the applied force in the specific and simpler manner. A simple machine uses the applied force for the work which is being done by the simple machine and the work is done against the single load force. If one ignores the losses that occur due to the friction then the work done by the applied force is equal to the work done on the given load. The simple machines can be used in order to increase the amount of the output force which is done at the cost of the decrease in the distance covered or moved by the load and this decrease is proportional to the increase in the output force.

Types of Simple Machines:

Usually there are six classical simple machines which are given below:


Wheel and axle


Inclined plane



4 Simple Machines

Pulley: The pulley is a simple machine used for the easy holding of the heavy weights. A pulley consists of the grooved wheels and the rope which is used to raise or lower or move any load.

Lever: A lever is nothing but a piece of the wood or the stiff bar of wood which is at rest on a support and the support is called the fulcrum and hence on that support it is used to lift or move the loads.

Wedge: A wedge is the object which has at least one side which is slanting and the same is ending in a sharp edge and this sharp edge is used to cut the materials apart.

Wheel & Axle: A wheel which is there with a rod which is called the axle and the compound system made the simple machine wheel and axle and in this simple machine the load is lifted or moved through the center of the machine.

Different Types of Energy

Introduction to different types of energy:

It is often said that a person A is more energetic than a person B. The meaning of this statement is that a person A can do more work than the person B. Person A is said to have more energy. Energy is needed to do some work. After doing a lot of work, one feels tired and need more energy. Thus, anything which is capable of doing work has energy. The capacity of doing work by a body or an object is known as the energy of  the body or the object.I like to share this Rotational Kinetic Energy Formula with you all through my article.

Energy is defined as the ability or the capacity to do work.

Units of Energy:

Energy can be measured in Joules. Joule is named after an English physicist named James Prescott Joule who lived from 1818 to 1889. He discovered that heat is a type of energy. One joule is the amount of energy needed to lift 1 pound about 9 inches.

Types of Energy:

Kinetic Energy- The energy possessed by a body by virtue of its motion is known as kinetic energy. For example a moving bus, Moving bullets, flowing water etc.

Potential Energy-  The energy possessed by a body by virtue of its position or shape, is known as Potential energy. For example water stored in a dam , a stone lying on the top of hill, a wound spring of a watch, a stretched bow and arrow  etc.

Mechanical Energy- The sum of kinetic energy and potential energy of a body is known as mechanical energy.

Types of Energy:

Heat or Thermal Energy- The energy possessed by a body due to its temperature is known as heat energy. For example energy of hot water, energy of hot air etc.

Chemical Energy- The energy released in chemical reactions is known as chemical energy.
Sound Energy- The energy of a vibrating object producing sound is known as Sound energy.
Electrical Energy- The energy of moving electrons in a conductor connected with a battery is known as electrical energy.
Nuclear Energy- The energy released when two nuclei of light elements combine with each other to form a heavy nucleus or when a heavy nucleus breaks into two light nuclei is known as nuclear energy.

Solar Energy- The energy radiated by the sun is known as Solar energy

Wednesday, May 22

White Light Spectrum

Introduction to white light spectrum:

White light spectrum is the visible light waves and they are electromagnetic waves that can be seen.  The white light is not white. It consists  of different colors of different wave length.  White light is a mixture of  of Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, and Violet.   These form a part of the electromagnetic spectrum.  Electromagnetic spectrum is a bunch of radiations and visible light is a part of this spectrum.   These Electromagnetic radiations are  radio waves, Microwaves,  infrared, visible light rays, Ultraviolet, x-rays and gamma rays.

Description about White light spectrum

The EM (Electromagnetic spectrum) is a bunch of radiations.  Radiation is an energy that travels and spreads. It can be visible white light of radio waves.

Newton gave his findings that when white light is passed through a transparent medium like glass this created a spread of colored light rays from r  Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, and Violet.  These are the colors  of the rainbow. This ordered separated of colored light is known as the spectrum. The white light spectrum also consists of UV light but that cannot be seen. When white light passes  through a prism, the white light is split  into the colors of the visible light spectrum. Water vapor in the atmosphere can also split the white light of different wave lengths  creating a rainbow.   Red color has longer wave length and violet has the shortest wave length.  There lies continuous range  of spectrum of wavelengths between red and violet.

White light spectrum passing through prism

The white light spectrum is the section of electromagnetic radiation spectrum that is visible to be human eye.  It ranges in wavelength from approximately 400 Newton meter (4 x 10-7 m) to 700 Newton meter  (7 x 10-7 m). It is also known as the optical spectrum of light.

When white light is passed through a prism it causes the wavelengths to bend at slightly different angles. That is due to refraction. This bending of light results in splitting of white light into visible colors. This cause the rainbow. The airborne  particles acts as the refractive medium which causes the splitting of white light into different angles.

Static Electricity Materials

Static Electricity

Static electricity is the accumulation of excess charge on the surface of an insulator, that is, a material that does not conduct electricity.

Why does the charge accumulate?

An atom is made of a positively charged nucleus (made of protons and neutrons) surrounded by several shells of electrons which are negatively charged. Objects that we see everyday are made of electrically neutral atoms or molecules. This means that the number of positive charges and negative charges are equal. However, when two electrically neutral materials are in contact, the electrons may move from one material to another. This means that one material gets an excess of negative charge, while the other one gets an excess of positive charge. If you separate the materials after the electrons have moved, there will be a charge imbalance in the materials.

In a conducting material, the charges are immediately conducted away, and the charge does not accumulate. So, the phenomenon of static charge accumulation or static electricity can be seen only in insulators or non-conductors.

Experiments of static electricity materials:

You can see how static charges accumulate by doing these simple experiments.

Experiment 1:

Rub a balloon vigorously on a sweater.  The rubbing motion increases the area of contact between the two surfaces, making it easier for charges to migrate. The balloon gets negatively charged and the jumper aquires a positive charge. Now, if you bring the balloon close to your hair, your hair will cling to the balloon. This is known as static cling.

Experiment 2:

Use a plastic comb to comb through your hair about ten times. Now, turn on a tap so that you have a steady water flow. The flow should not be very fast. If you bring the comb near the stream of water without touching it, the water will bend towards the comb. This is because the charges on the comb pull on the uncharged water.

Removing static electricity:

Static electricity can be removed by bringing the material into contact with a conductor, or with a region that has an excess charge that is opposite to the material. This causes the charge to neutralize, resulting in a static 'shock.' In regions of high humidity, the air itself will conduct away the static charges.

Tuesday, May 21

Moon Distance From Earth

Introduction to moon distance from earth:

To begin with moon's distance from earth, let us know that Moon is a natural satellite of our earth. In our solar system, there are nine planets and out of which seven planets have their moons. Moons are also the part of the solar system. Actually, the name moon means the artificial satellite. That is the name of the family not the name of a particular natural satellite. Because earth has only one natural satellite, so that we can say it moon, but the planets has so many artificial natural satellites so there is the particulars name given to all the moons. Here we discuss about the distance of the moon from our earth.

Moon's distance from earth:

A solid heavenly body that revolves around a planet is called its natural satellite or the moon. Moon is the natural satellite of the earth, which revolves around the earth. Natural satellites, i.e., moons do not have their own light. They reflect the sun light falling on them and appear shining. The size of the moon of the earth is one fourth of the size of the earth. The diameter of the moon is 3480 Km. The mass of the moon is one eighth of the mass of the earth, i.e., 7.35 × 1022 kg.  The distance of the moon from the earth’s surface is 3.8 × 105 km. The surface of the moon is hard and loose soil, craters, mountainous. There is no atmosphere on the moon. The temperature of the moon at the daytime is 110°C and at the nighttime is -150°C.

Conclusion of moon distance from the earth:

Moon completes one revolution around the earth in 27.3 days. As the temperature is too high and too low on the moon, the survival of life is not possible. The conditions of the survival of life are moderate temperature, existence of water, oxygen rich atmosphere and the presence of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen elements and the main important thing is protective layer, which can protect the moon groom the ultra violet radiations of the sun. All these conditions are not full fill on the surface of the moon so the life cannot exist on the moon.

Tides and Waves Energy

Introduction to tidal renewable energy:

There are two types of energy in nature i.e. renewable and non-renewable. Non renewable sources of energy includes those sources of energy which derived from fossil-fuels. It includes, petroleum, natural gas, diesel, etc.  Renewable sources includes those sources which are gift of nature and available free of cost to us. Such as Hydro energy, solar energy, Wind energy, Thermal energy. Geo-thermal energy etc. One of them is "Tidal energy".  Tidal energy refers to the form of the energy which is derived from the motion of  tides waves. Tides are supposed to be generated in sea by the gravitational pull of the moon.  When Tides flow at certain pace, it acquires tremendous energy due to its motion i.e. kinetic energy. Mainly, it is Kinetic energy which causes it to do work.

Cause of energy in tides:

Energy in Tide is stored in the form of pressure. When water molecule is flowing,  the electrons start to move at high speed. This moving molecule of water takes to the air because of its quickly moving electrons. This moving water molecule keeps away from other water molecules. This distance gives rise to pressure. When this process of moving water occurs at large scale, enormous amount of pressure is built. When this pressure is released, energy can be generated. This energy is known as Tidal Energy

Uses and limitations of tidal energy:

Tidal energy has industrial, agricultural and house hold uses. This energy is used in industries for power generation. The transfer of energy from the tides to the object causes it to move.Tidal energy produced is used to rotate the turbine, which in turns rotates shaft of the generator.  Thus, electricity is produced. However there are certain limitations regarding the uses of Tidal energy. It can be used only under certain conditions and at certain places where there is ample scope of its availability. The geographical location of the place is a varying factor for the use of tidal energy. The locations near the sea are good sites for harnessing the tidal energy. One of the major limitation is that it is not available 24 hours a day.

What is Wind Power Energy

Introduction on what is wind power energy:

Wind energy is more upgrading energy. It was less known to people in ancient times, sailor used wind energy to sail boat then it was used for much more purpose. Wind energy was converted into mechanical energy and that lead many applications. The most beneficial was used in generation of electrical energy mostly in hilly areas. This led to generation of high power of energy and was transmitted using cables.

Wind Power Systems

The wind turbines play a vital role in conversion of wind energy into mechanical energy and thus help in generating electrical energy. Wind turbines are attached with blades and ensured it can withstand high velocity of wind, as wind hits the blades it rotates which in turn rotated the motor of the generator and helps in generating electricity. This electricity is transmitted usually using wires to towers and mostly as three phase alternating current. The rotational speed of turbine cannot be predicted and so do the voltage and frequency varies and it may not be at constant times. Most hilly stations are located with turbines especially with three blades with capacity to up hold the high velocities of wind and produce electricity.

The output is rectified to direct current (DC) to charge batteries or to be inverted for grid connection.

Wind turbines can be classified into two groups: vertical-axis design and the horizontal-axis variety. A horizontal-axis wind turbine normally has two or three blades. These three-bladed are operated with blades facing the wind.

Wind Turbine

One can see wind turbines situated in almost all hill stations and its rotation depends  on the speed of wind. As winds velocity increases so the acceleration of blades increase and rotates at a high rotational speed. The rotation is not constant even during rain the turbines rotate at better speed and which activated the generator at the time and is transferred using wire cables. The main advantage is that it doesn’t produce any waste or effect the environment in either ways. Sometimes a drastic increase in the wind will increase the turbine speed numerously and thus the energy consumption. In hilly station this is the main source of energy and comparatively installing a small turbine is cost effective.

Wednesday, May 15

Angular Displacement

We know that linear displacement of a body is the difference between final position and initial position of a body. When there is a rotational motion then the displacement is called angular displacement and is different from linear displacement. I like to share this formula for angular velocity with you all through my article.

Let us understand What is Angular Displacement?
It is the angle through which a body has been rotated about certain axis. In a rotational motion the velocity of the particle keeps on changing at every instant.
So rotational motion is dealt I a different way. In this case the body is considered as rigid instead of particle as the distance between all the particle remains constant throughout the motion.

Observe the diagram given above. The object starts moving from its initial position to point A. In such a case the distance of the object remains constant from origin throughout its motion.
The coordinates of the object is then defined in polar coordinate system as (r, Ө) where r is its distance from origin and Ө is the angle it has covered from x axis. Ө keeps on varying and r remains constant during the motion. As particle rotates along the circle it covers an arc on the circle which is given by:
S = r.Ө, here s is the arc covered by the object; r and Ө are radius and angle covered by the object.
Angular displacement is Ө and Angular Displacement Units are radians and is given by the following relation:
Ө = S/r
Example: if a body rotates an angle of 180 degree on a circle of radius r then angular-displacement is given by the distance travelled n circumference which is πr divided by the radius such as:
Ө = πr/r = π
If the object starts motion on the circle at some point other than on x axis which makes an angle Ө1 with x axis and then moves to other point which makes an angle Ө2 with x axis then angular displacement is given by the final angle minus initial angle i.e. Ө = Ө2 – Ө1.

Angular Velocity and Acceleration are other rotational terms. During the rotation even if the particle moves with a constant rotational speed the particle accelerates. This is due to the fact that it always changes its direction of movement. Angular acceleration is given as rate of change of angular velocity and is denoted by . Its unit is radians.second2.
= d^2Ө/dt^2
= dω/dt. Here ω is angular velocity. It is the rate of change of angular position. Its unit is radians/second.
ω= dӨ/dt.

Diffraction Waves

Let us define diffraction first. As we know diffraction is the bending of the waves when they collide with an obstacle. It is also possible when the waves pass through the slit etc. Now the point to think here is something our discussion will be about. Imagine there is a wall between you and your friend. The wall has a little hole on the top. Your friend calls you from the other side. You will be able to hear his voice that is for sure. How do you think this is possible? This is because of the bending of the sound waves and their spherical passage through the hole in the wall. So, waves that we referred to in the above definition will include both sound and light waves.

Please express your views of this topic Transverse Waves and Longitudinal Waves by commenting on blog.

Diffraction sound is an interesting phenomenon in itself. Imagine a sound proof room. It is sound-proof; this means that it does not have any small or big openings which would have otherwise led to this phenomenon.
While discussing sound diffraction we should also take in account the wavelength of the sound wave. When the order of wavelength of the obstacle or its size is the order of the wavelength of the sound waves which pass through it then we will be able to experience the phenomena. This is because in other cases the effect will be negligible.

As already mentioned the diffraction of a wave may include both light waves as well as sound waves. In fact the sensation of vision is mostly possible because of this phenomenon. Sound waves also have the ability of reflection. This combined gives rise to many interesting phenomena.

Is this topic Types of Intermolecular Forces hard for you? Watch out for my coming posts.

Let us also discuss a few examples of this.
When sitting in a auditorium; even when it is curved or spherical we are able to hear the sound due to its bending at collision with various objects. Also consider a big building and someone playing music at one end and people standing at other side of the building. Sound obviously exhibits the phenomenon of diffraction in this case. Drums playing in a marriage and you being able to hear it inside your house are another example of the same combined with reflection of sound waves.

Even take an example of sound barriers build to protect the tenants from traffic noise. But then also people are able to hear the noise in a lower amount. This is also because of the same phenomenon.

Potential Energy Facts

Introduction to facts related to potential energy:

Object stores energy by the effect of its position and this energy is known as potential energy. Suppose, when a demolition machine lifts its heavy ball, it stores energy in it. This energy stored because of position is known as potential energy. Similarly, energy is stored in a drawn bow because of its position. When in equilibrium (i.e., when not drawn), no energy is stored in the bow. However, when its position is altered it stores energy by the virtue of changing position. This stored energy is potential energy. The 19th century Scottish engineer and physicist William Rankine coined the term potential energy. Its SI unit is Joules denoted by ‘J’.

Overview on Potential Energy

Energy that is stored within a system is potential energy. Potential energy exists when an object is tending to pull towards some lower energy position. This force is known as restoring force. Suppose, a spring is stretched to the left then a force will work to the right to bring it back in the original position. For this energy is required. The energy required in restoring the spring is stored in metal. Thus, as the law of conservation of energy state, energy cannot disappear and hence, stored as potential energy.

General rule

PE = mgh

Change in the potential energy is denoted by ?U. Commonly used notations for potential energy are U, Ep, and PE.

Please express your views of this topic What is Energy Conservation by commenting on blog.

Some other types of potential energies

Gravitational Potential energy

PE = mgh

m = mass, g = gravity (9.8m/s), h = height

Elastic Potential energy

PEelastic = 0.5kx^2

k = spring constant, x = expansion or compression amount

Chemical potential energy – Energy related to the molecular or atomic structural arrangement is known as Chemical potential energy.

Electrical potential energy – Potential energy in an object due to its electric charge is electrical potential energy. It is divided into two parts i.e. Electrostatic Potential energy and Electrodynamics’ potential energy.

Nuclear potential energy – Potential energy inside an atomic nucleus is known as nuclear potential energy.

Motion in One Dimension

Introduction to motion in one dimension:-
When a object moves in a straight line, motion of the object is called as motion in one dimension.

This type of motion is also called as linear motion. For example, 1. A ball moves on a level road in straight Line,  2. A ball is thrown straight up, 3. Free falling bodies. One dimensional motion is the simplest motion in physics.

I like to share this center of mass equation with you all through my article.

Some definitions orf motion in one dimensions:

Displacement-   the shortest distance between initial and final point is called as displacement.

Distance- the length of path travelled by object between initial and final points is called as distance travelled by object.

Speed – speed of object can be calculated by eq.  -         Speed = distance/ time.

Average speed-          average speed is the average of all speeds attained by object during trip.

It can be calculated by eq. -           average speed = total distance travelled / total time taken

Velocity-   velocity of the object can be calculated by eq.-    velocity = displacement / time

General Units of velocity is meter/second, kilometer/hour, miles/ hour. SI unit of velocity is meter/second.

Average velocity- average velocity of object can be calculated by eq. –

Average velocity = change in position / time interval

Acceleration- acceleration of the object is the rate of change of velocity. It can be calculated by eq.-

Acceleration = change in velocity / time interval

Uniform motion- when speed of the object is constant throughout one dimensional motion. Motion is called as uniform motion.

Non-uniform motion- speed in non-uniform motions is not constant and these motions have acceleration.

Having problem with Spin Quantum Number keep reading my upcoming posts, i will try to help you.

Distance- time graph : Motion in one dimension

Distance- time graph in one dimensional motion is drawn between distance travelled and time. For uniform one dimensional motion this graph shows a straight line. Slope of line represents the velocity of motion. For non-uniform one dimensional motion, this graph shows a curve.

Thursday, May 2

Integrated Data Communication

Introduction to Integrated Data Communication:

Integrated Data Communications  (IDC) is a Seattle-based integrator of wireless voice and data solutions for mobile devices and computers. IDC enable us to send and receive high-value data ubiquitously -- regardless of technology, device or network.

It is a technology which enables the transmission of data over digital wireless voice channels while not requiring changes to the existing network infrastructure.

Is this topic Alternate Current hard for you? Watch out for my coming posts.

Concept of integrated data communication

Integrated data communications (IDC) is an application of telecommunications technology to solve the problem of transmitting data, especially to and from, or between computers. Generally, it is said that using integrated data communications one computer can “talk" with another computer.

IDC is  intelligent wireless communications that integrate voice and data to support location-based and other high-value data applications and services on any wireless network or air interface. In present days this is easily used to communicate between two mobile devices.

Having problem with center of mass equation keep reading my upcoming posts, i will try to help you.

Example of Integrated data communication:

As we have shown above, the communication is done using a wireless network thus we easily say that the wireless data communication in the integrated mode is one of the examples of integrated data communication.

Wireless SCADA systems are one of the good examples of this communication. These systems usually operate over wide geographical area; country, province, large city, district, etc. These systems shall preferable operate as stand alone and well "isolated" from other communication networks, which may be vulnerable to overloading, interference,  interruption of service, security attacks, fraud, etc. The data communication rates of SCADA is in the range of 1200 bps up to 9600 bps.