Thursday, February 28

Three Types of Deserts

Introduction to deserts:

A landscape that receives a very low amount of rainfall is called as Desert. Deserts are the areas with average annual precipitation of less than 250 millimeters (10 in) per year, or as areas where more water is lost by evapotranspiration than falls as precipitation. Desert is the place where plants can’t grow because of the low rainfall. Let us see some main classifications of desert. I like to share this Kinematics Problems with you all through my article.

Monsoon deserts

The word ‘Monsoon’ derived from the Arabic word ‘season’. Because of the drastic changes in the temperature between the continents and the oceans, Monsoons are developed. The southeast wind of the Indian Ocean leads heavy summer rains in India mostly in coastal regions. When the monsoon crosses India, it loses its moisture on coastal Aravalli Range. The Thar Desert of India and pakistan is the part of a monsoon desert region west.

Polar deserts:

Polar deserts are rich in rain fall and it has precipitation per year is less than 250 millimeters and a mean temperature is less than 10° C. In the world, polar deserts totally cover 5 million square kilometers. Sand dunes are not important features in these types of deserts while snow dunes are usually occurs only in low rain fall areas. Please express your views of this topic Permanent Magnet Definition by commenting on blog.

Hot and Dry deserts:

Hot deserts are usually present around the equator. Hot and dry deserts are warm around the year and very hot in the summer. And it has low humidity. It has little rain fall in winter. Very Small but heavy storms are occurs often. The Soil presents in this type of desert is too hard and rocky. Burrowing mammals, insects and reptiles are the main creatures living there. The Sandy Desert of Australia, the Sahara of North Africa (largest desert in the world) the Sonoran Desert of Arizona and northwestern Mexico fall under this category.

Issac Newtons Law


About Sir Isaac Newton’s:

Sir Isaac Newton’s was one of the greatest scientists and mathematicians that ever live. He was born in England on December 25th, 1643. He was born the similar year that Galileo died. He lived for 85 years.

Isaac Newton was raise by his grandmother. He attends Free Grammar School and then went on to Trinity College Cambridge. Newton work his way through college. While at college he becomes interested in math, physics, and astronomy. Newton usual both a bachelors and masters degree. I like to share this newton's law of cooling equation with you all through my article.

Newton’s First Law of motion:

An object at rest will stay at relax unless acted on by an unequal force. Objects in motion continue in motion with the same speed and in the same speed and in the same direction unless acted upon by an unequal force.

This law is often called "the law of inertia".

This means that there is a natural propensity of objects to keep on doing what they're doing. All objects stand firm changes in their state of motion. In the absence of an unequal force, an object in motion will

Keep this state of motion.

Newton’s Second Law of motion:

When a force acts on a mass the acceleration is produced.The greater the mass (of the object being accelerated) the larger the amount of force needed (to accelerate the object).

Everyone automatically knows the Second Law. Everyone knows that heavier objects need more force to move the same distance as lighter objects.

But, the Second Law of motion gives us an exact relationship between force, mass, and acceleration. It can be expressed as a mathematical equation:

F = M X A

Newton’s Third Law of motion:

The Newton’s third law is, meant for every action there is an equal and opposite re-action.This means that for each force there is a reaction force that is equal in size, but opposite in direction. That is to say that at any time an object push another object it gets pushed back in the opposite direction equally hard.

Sir Isaac Newton Science

Sir Isaac Newton Science

Sir Isaac Newton was an English physicist, mathematician, and astronomer, who is widely considered as one of the most influential people in human history. His 1687 publication of the PhilosophiƦ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (usually called the Principia) is considered to be among the most influential books in the history of science, laying the groundwork for most of classical mechanics. In this work, Newton described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion which continues an important role in the scientific view of the physical universe for the next three centuries. Newton also built the first practical reflecting telescope and developed a theory of colour based on the observation of a prism. He also formulated an empirical law of cooling and studied the speed of sound. I like to share this heat capacity equation with you all through my article.

Sir Isaac Newton's Science:

Newton investigated the refraction of light, demonstrating that a prism could decompose white light into a spectrum of colours, and that a lens and a second prism could do the reverse.

His studies proved that coloured light does not change its properties by separating out a coloured beam and shining it on various objects. Newton noted that regardless of whether it was reflected or scattered or transmitted, it stayed the same colour. Thus when objects interact with already-colored light, colour is produced. This is known as Newton's theory of colour. From this work, he concluded that the the dispersion of light into colours can be seen in lens of any refracting telescope. Newton’s contribution to the Law of Gravity is phenomenal and is regarded one of the major break-throughs in the world of Science.

Sir Isaac Newton’s Laws of Motion:

The famous three laws of motion are:

Sir Isaac Newton's First Law (also known as the Law of Inertia) states that an object at rest tends to stay at rest and that an object in uniform motion tends to stay in uniform motion unless acted upon by a net external force.

Sir Isaac Newton's Second Law states that an applied force on an object equals the rate of change of its momentum, with time.

Sir Isaac Newton's Third Law states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction

Wednesday, February 20

Meaning of Physical Science

The term physical science may often be misinterpreted to be a particular branch of science. It is actually a term used to group the different branches of natural science that study non living systems. In this context, physical science may seem different from biological science, which deals with the study of living systems. However, there is some confusion that the use of the term physical science creates, because while it deals with non living systems, some of these systems also deal with biological phenomena. There are different branches that come under the aegis of physical science. These include astronomy, physics, chemistry, geology, oceanography, hydrology, meteorology, and soil science. Physical science is based on the different theories and propositions made to explain the different aspects of behavior of nature. I like to share this The Electromagnetic Spectrum Includes with you all through my article.

There have been a number of reputed scientists who have worked in the sphere of physical science, both from ancient and modern times. Eminent people from the ancient times in this field include Aristotle, Archimedes, Robert Boyle, Francis Bacon, Galileo, Nicolaus Copernicus, Thales of Miletus, etc. From the modern times, scientists who worked in this field include Marie Curie, Albert Einstein, James Hutton, Isaac Newton, Linus Pauling, etc.
Science (from the Latin scientia, meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise of gathering knowledge about the world and organizing and condensing that knowledge into testable laws and theories.As knowledge has increased, some methods have proved more reliable than others, and today the scientific method is the standard for science. It includes the use of careful observation, experiment, measurement, mathematics, and replication — to be considered a science, a body of knowledge must stand up to repeated testing by independent observers. The use of the scientific method to make new discoveries is called scientific research, and the people who carry out this research are called scientists.This article focuses on science in the more restricted sense, what is sometimes called experimental science. Applied science, or engineering, is the practical application of scientific knowledge. Having problem with Doppler Shift Formula keep reading my upcoming posts, i will try to help you.

A scientific hypothesis is an educated guess about the nature of the universe, a scientific theory is a hypothesis which has been confirmed by repeated observation and measurement. Scientific theories are usually given mathematical form, and are always subject to refutation if future experiments contradict them.

Magnetic Field Moment

Introduction to magnetic field moment:

Magnetic moment is a determination of its propensity to align through magnetic field. Equally the magnetic moment also magnetic field might be measured towards vectors which contains a magnitude and the direction. The way of the magnetic moment point as of the south within the way of north pole of a magnet. Magnetic field created through a magnet is relative toward its magnetic moment. I like to share this Effective Magnetic Moment with you all through my article.

Magnetic field moment

For instance, circles of electric current, an electron, a tavern magnet, also planet all contain magnetic moments.

Further accurately, the word magnetic moment usually refers toward a system magnetic dipole moment, which it is; create the initial word within the multiple extension of a common magnetic field. Dipole part of object's magnetic field be symmetric on the way of magnetic dipole moment, also reduce like the inverse dice of the distance as of the object.

Magnetic moment of solenoids:

Magnetic moment of a number of turn solenoid is resolute when the vector total of the instant of entity rotates. In the case of the same rotation, it is equivalent just towards the entity that turns instant multiply through the whole number of rotation within the solenoid. Formerly, the value of sum magnetic instant is established, it will be used to create the distant field also to store energy within the outside field and within the similar approach like used for the single-turn circle. Having problem with Centripetal Acceleration Equation keep reading my upcoming posts, i will try to help you.

Type of magnetic sources:

Motion of electric charges.
Intrinsic magnetism of elementary particles.

Magnetic dipole moment

Since the term used for the torque lying on an existing circle, the uniqueness of the existing loop be summarized within its magnetic instant.


Magnetic instant be able to be measured toward exist a vector quantity through the way vertical to the current circle within the right-hand-rule way.

Torque is known through,


When we see within the geometry of an existing circle, this torque be inclined to line up the magnetic instant through the magnetic field B, thus this correspond to its lowly energy configuration. Potential energy related through the magnetic moment can be written as,


Thus, the distinction within energy among aligned also be anti-aligned,


Wednesday, February 13

Space Wave Propagation


Generally the space wave propagation has the following components:

Direct wave
Reflected wave
Direct wave is getting from the transmitting antenna and the reflected wave is getting from the surface of the earth.

Space waves are the waves which are used for satellite communication and line of sight path. The waves have frequencies up to 40 MHz provides essential communication and limited the line of sight paths. Having problem with vector equation keep reading my upcoming posts, i will try to help you.

propagation of space waves:

The output signal which is received from the receiving antenna depends on the phase difference among the direct and reflected rays. The earth cause the reflection of phase difference of 1800. If the differences between the antennas are not too long then the direct and reflected waves which are arriving at the receiving antenna oppose the phase which cancelling each other.

By raising the heights of antennas space waves becomes more effective. The transmission of direct waves is not straight always. It may be refracted on the earth’s surface. Is this topic Regions of the Electromagnetic Spectrum hard for you? Watch out for my coming posts.

Antenna for space propagation:


One of the important components of the space wave propagation is antenna. It is located at both sides of the transmitter and receiver.

The transmitting antenna radiates the electromagnetic waves and the receiver antenna gets the transmitted signal from transmitting antenna. The antenna is acts as a conversion device.

Process of transmitting antenna: Converts the electrical energy into electromagnetic energy

Process of receiving antenna: Converts the electromagnetic energy into electrical energy

Normally the length of the antenna is `lambda/4` . Here the wavelength of radio frequency is `lambda`.

Television signals:

Television signal propagation:

The frequency range of Television signal is from 88MHz to 960 MHz.

Possibilities for transmitting TV signals:

With the help of satellite for communication which can reflect the signals back to earth
With the help of very height antennas
Coverage range: The TV signals can cover the range of d=`root()(2R_eh)` where h is the height of antenna

This covering range of TV signals is increased by increase in height of antenna.

Uniform Motion

Introduction to Uniform Motion

A motion is said to be uniform if the particle covers equal distances in equal intervals of time, however  small these intervals of time may be , always in the same direction. Strictly speaking , no motion is uniform.

When a particle has uniform motion, neither the magnitude nor the direction of velocity changes , so the velocity is constant in uniform motion and is equal to Instantaneous velocity of the particle. I like to share this equation for frequency with you all through my article.

So uniform is a relative concept. If an object A is in uniform motion relative to another object B, then from B's view there appear to be no force applied to A; i.e. it appears to be neither accelerating nor decelerating, nor changing directions or moving in a curve. The same should apply vice versa.

when a particle possess uniform motion, it's velocity- time graph is a straight line parallel to time axis.If the velocity of the particle is taken as positive, the straight line is taken above the time axis and if it is negative, then the V-t graph will be a straight line below the time axis

Uniform Motion : Velocity- time Graph

The Velocity- time graph for uniformly accelerated rectilinear motion is straight line sloping upwards.

The velocity- time graph for a uniformly retarded motion is a straight line sloping downwards.

Let us consider a particle moving with constant acceleration .If U and V be the velocities at time t1 and t2  respectively, then

`V= U+at` gives the equation connecting initial velocity, final velocity, acceleration and time. I have recently faced lot of problem while learning Effects of Radiation on Humans, But thank to online resources of math which helped me to learn myself easily on net.

Uniform Motion : V-t Graphs and Acceleration

The Velocity- time graph for the uniformly accelerated motion of a particle is a straight line sloping upwards.

The area under the V-t graph gives the distance covered by the particle.It is calculated by the equation `V^2= U^2+2ad`

so here distance is as area under Velocity- time graph

The slope of the V- t graph for uniformly accelerated motion gives the acceleration.

Wednesday, February 6

Laser Cutting Process

Introduction to laser cutting process:

Laser which stands for Light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation.When electromagnetic radiation or some times visible radiations  released by the stimulated emission then this is known as Lasers.Electrons present in the elements can change their state in order to attain stability.When any energy is supplied then electrons are excited to higher states,but at the higher states these are not so stable so it jumps down by releasing some energy.These energy comes under certain range .It can be in the electromagnetic range,visible range or may be in some other range of the spectrum.Laser is a monochromatic and short wavelength rays.These rays have high frequency. Is this topic Definition Kinetic Energy hard for you? Watch out for my coming posts.

Laser beams are very useful in many fields.Laser cutting is also a field where lasers are used to cut the materials.Lasers are very high power beams when it is subjected to the materials then material melts,vaporises or burns,or it is blown away by the high pressure beams.As compared to the mechanical cutting this process of cutting is very effective and accurate.Some times materials are very hard to cut by using normal mechanical methods,so in these cases laser cutting  helps and it makes the cutting very easy and simple.

Types of Laser

There are mainly three types of laser cutting device is used depending upon the material used for the production of lasers.These materials are.

1)Carbon Dioxide


3)Neodymium yttrium Aluminium garnet

These different lasers are used in different applications.These are used for cutting,trimming,scribing.engraving etc.To produce the laser beams the lasing materials are stimulated ,then the generated beam is reflected so many times internally by using mirrors till it gains high  energy  to come out as monochromatic beams.

Different Methods of Cutting by Laser

By using laser cutting of material can be done in various ways.The high energy of the beam is mainly used to cut the material.Some of the methods are described below

By vaporising-in this method the material is heated to its boiling point to obtain a gap.

Thermal stress cutting-This method is used for the brittle material .When Brittle material is subjected to high heat then it results in crack.

melt and blow-In this method first the material is melt and then it is blown by high pressure beams.

By cold cutting


General Electric Refrigerator

Introduction to General Electrical Refrigerators:
A refrigerator is a cooling apparatus. The common name which we use is Fridge. Cooling apparatus is in the sense it is used to cool the products. Mainly it is used for the storage of food devices. This devise is used to reduce the rate of spoilage of food stuffs. The refrigerator keeps a temperature a few degrees above the freezing point of water. It is also called as Freezer. Having problem with What is Electric Charge keep reading my upcoming posts, i will try to help you.

Types of Refrigerators:

1. Absorption Refrigerator – In this quite running is required. They don’t have bulky mechanism.

2. Compressor Refrigerator – They make noticeable noise.

3. Solar Refrigerator – They are designed to reduce electrical consumption .these have advantages that they do not use refrigerants that are harmful to environment.

Non food use: They are used in laboratories, for storing samples analysis, storing film stock and morgues.

Freezer: Freezer units are used in households and in industry and commerce. Domestic freezers are generally upright units resembling refrigerators.

4. Magnetic Refrigerator – These Refrigerators work on the magneto caloric effect. The cooling effect is triggered by placing a metal alloy in a magnetic field.

Temperatures zones and rating:

Some refrigerator are having are having four zones to store different types of food.

1.  -18^0 C (-0^0 F) (freezer)

2.  0^0C (32^0 F) (meats)

3.  5^0 C (41^0 F) (refrigerator)

4.  10^0 C (50^0 F) (vegetables)

The capacity of a refrigerator is measured in either litters or cubic feet.  Typically the volume of a combined split to 100 liters (3.53 cubic feet) for the freezer and 140 liters (4.94 cubic feet) for the refrigerator, the values are highly variable. Please express your views of this topic Temperature Formula by commenting on blog.

Features of General Electric Refrigerator:

The newer refrigerators m y includes:

A powerful failure warning

Chilled water and ice available from an indoor stations o the door need not be opened.

Automatic defrosting.

Automatic cooling at the steam

Inductors in Ac Circuits

Description of an inductor:

An inductor in a AC circuit is a component that has the property of inductance. Inductors have very wide applications. The inductance of an inductor makes the current to lag the voltage in an AC circuit and this phenomenon is used in certain applications. The inductors are also called reactors, chokes and coils depending upon the application. I like to share this formula celsius to fahrenheit with you all through my article.

The inductor is basically a closely wound coil around a material of high permeability (magnetically susceptible).

Let us study what exactly are the functions of inductors in AC circuits.

Concept of Inductance by an Inductor in Ac Circuits:

The above diagram shows a AC circuit connected to an inductor. When an AC voltage is applied to an inductor, the rate of change in current passes through that induces an emf, as per Faraday’s law. This emf, as per Lenz’s law opposes the change in current.

The inductance of an inductor is denoted by L and its unit is Henry, named after the American scientist who discovered electromagnetic induction at the same time with the great scientist Michael Faraday from England.

One unit of Hendry produces an emf of 1 volt for a change in current of 1 ampere per second. Understanding An Electric Current is Measured in Units of is always challenging for me but thanks to all math help websites to help me out.

Inductors in Ac Circuits:

Inductors in AC circuits, as explained earlier opposes the change in current. In a way it can be termed as a magnetic resistor. Like resistors, the equivalent inductance of various inductors is the sum of the values of all the inductance values when they are connected in series. That is,

L = L1 + L2 + L3 ….. + Ln

Similar to the case of resistors, in parallel operation,

(1/L) = (1/L1)+ (1/L2) + (1/L3) ….. + (1/Ln)

Like resistors in resistive circuits, the inductors in AC circuits converts the electrical energy but stores that in the magnetic field.  The energy stored is given by,

E = (1/2) LI^2