Sunday, June 9

3 Ways to Conserve Energy

Introduction to 3 ways to conserve energy:
It is necessary to conserve coal and petroleum resources of the earth by reducing their consumption so that they may last for as long as possible. Coal is used mainly to produce electricity. So, if we can save electricity, then the consumption of coal will be automatically reduced.

Conserving energy:

The petroleum products kerosene and LPG are used for cooking food, and petrol and diesel are used as fuel in motor vehicles, so if we can save on kerosene. LPG, petrol and diesel, then the consumption of petroleum will also get reduce.

Three steps to Conserve energy:

Some of the steps which can be taken to conserve energy resources are as follows:

Switch off the lights, fans television and other electrical appliances when not needed. This will save a lot of electricity. Use energy efficient electrical appliances to save electricity. This can be done by using Compact Fluorescent Lamps and Fluorescent tube lights instead of traditional filament-type electric bulbs because CFL and tube-lights consume much less electric energy as compared to filament-type electric bulbs for producing the same amount of light. Use stairs to climb at least up to three floors of a building instead of taking a lift. This will save electricity.Having problem with Elastic Potential Energy Formula keep reading my upcoming posts, i will try to help you.

Pressure cookers should be used for cooking food to save fuels like kerosene and LPG. Good quality stoves should be used to burn fuels like kerosene and cooking gas so as to obtain maximum heat. Solar cookers should be used to cook food wherever possible.

The use of bio gas as domestic fuel should be encouraged in rural areas. Bicycles should be used for covering short distances to save precious fuel like petrol. Public transport system in cities should be improved so that people do not commute in their personal vehicle. This will save a lot of petrol and diesel. Fuel efficient engines of motor vehicles should be designed to reduce the consumption of petrol and diesel.

White Light Interference

Introduction to Interference of white light:

The phenomenon of interference of light have proved the legality of light’s wave theory. Thomas Young successfully demonstrated his experiment on interference of light in 1802. When two or else more wave train acts concurrently on any constituent part in a means afterward the displacement of the particle at any instantaneous is due to the superposing of all the wave train. Also, after superimposing, the region of cross over, the wave train appear as if they have not interfered at all. Each wave train retains its individual characteristics. Each wave train behaves as if others are absent. This principle was illustrated by Huygens in 1678.

I like to share this Wave Theory of Light with you all through my article.

What is interference of light?

The interfering of light is the phenomenon of redistribution of light energy in a medium on account of superposition of light waves from two coherent sources. At the points where the resultant intensity of the light is maximum the interference is said to be the constructive one but the point where the intensity of the light is minimum the interference is named as destructive interference.

Interference of White Light

When the white light is used in interference, the center of the fringe pattern of the interference is white while the other fringes on both side of the central fringe in the interference pattern are colored shown in fig.1 because of the fringe width depends upon wavelength. The fringe width β is given by

`beta = (lambda D) / d`

Where λ is the wavelength of the light and D is the distance of the screen on which the interference pattern is observed from the slits and d is the spacing of the double slits.

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Conclusion for the Interference of White Light

From the discussion on interference of white light, we conclude that the above formula indicating the fringe width varies linearly with the wavelength apart from the central fringe, the fringes on both sides of the central fringe which is bright are colored and have a pattern of increasing width and at the end when the pattern reaches the red color of the white light, the fringe is very broad and no other fringe is observed after it.

Thursday, June 6

Future of Solar Power

Introduction to the Future of Solar Power:

We can define solar energy as the limitless and as well as the clean source of energy from the sun.

The future of our solar power or energy  depends on several factors. The various factors are discussed below:

The future of solar power depends primarily on one of the factor that is its cost of production. As the  renewable energy that is  coal and other fossil fuels are much cheaper when compared with the solar power production.

Having problem with Formula for Potential Energy keep reading my upcoming posts, i will try to help you.

But the scientists are predicting grid parity. It is the point where the cost of the solar power will be equivalent to the cost of the renewable based energy. Grid parity has been achieved already that is California which produces approximately 45 kWh by using commercial solar panel rooftop systems. We can also develop grid parity for residential places to get power from the solar system as the renewable energies are getting depleted. But we will have to wait to use the solar power till the cost of solar power gets dropped or cheaper or cost effective than the renewable resources which we are using now.

As it is not cheaper or due to some technical limitations the use of solar energy is difficult now. But it will surely replace other power resources which we are using now in future by using giant solar collectors in space which can be used by grid.

Most of the small devices such as the mobiles we are using the solar power to recharge it. The price of the solar power will get reduced when all the peoples will start to use the solar power in our home and all places. Solar cars which we are using are environment friendly as it do not make the environment worst.

Global warming problems can be reduced when we will use the solar power in all the places and will make the environment cleaner.

Problem facing the future of solar power

The first problem which we are facing in the future of solar power is the the large space required to construct or build the solar power plants which will comprised of solar panels to store the energy which can be used by the grid. The construction of the new buildings with the solar panels fitted on top of the roofs so that the solar power can be easily used by the people.

It is not economical to produce such a large amount of power from sun.

The solar energy cannot be used directly from the sun.

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How to produce solar power

The solar energy is converted into electrical energy by the photo voltaic cells which can be used for domestic requirements. The electrical energy produced from the sun during the daytime is stored in the battery which can be used in the form of direct current. The inverter is used to convert DC supply to AC supply of 110V to power all the domestic lighting's and appliances.

As the solar energy is available directly from the sun freely, we do not have to bear any costs of the fuel to produce electricity from solar power and the maintenance cost of this very less almost zero.

The another problem which we are facing is that PV cells can generate only small amount of electricity and to increase this amount of power we have to use large layers of silicon slices in cells.

The Crust of the Earth

Introduction to crust of earth:

In the ancient time when the earth was formed it was very cold. This earth is called as the primitive earth. As more and more planetesimals collided with the primitive earth and stuck to it, their kinetic energy got converted into heat. Radioactive disintegration of the elements, such as Uranium, Thorium etc and contraction of earth due to gravitational force also heated the primitive earth. This heating of primitive earth gradually raises its temperature and the primitive earth melted. The molten material of the earth then began to reorganize into layered structure under the influence of gravity. During the formation of layered structure the lighter molten rose up to the surface to make the earth’s crust.

Description on crust of the earth:

There are three major layers of earth out of which the uppermost layer is called the crust of the earth. The thickness of the crust of earth varies from place to place. It lies between 35 km to 60 km under continents and about 10 km under oceans. The ocean crust is different from the continental crust. The ocean crust is made up of basalt, diabase and gabbro. The continental and the ocean crust float on the second layer of earth called mantle.   The crust of the earth generally composed of lighter elements. About 75% of the earth’s crust is covered with water. The crust of the earth is composed of igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks. The crust of the earth occupies the earth’s volume by less than 1%. The average density for the upper crust lies between 2.7 gram per cubic centimeter and 2.74 gram per cubic centimeter. The average density of the lower crust lies between 3.0 gram per cubic centimeter and 3.25 gram per cubic centimeter. The temperature of the crust of the earth increases with the depth. The temperature of the crust of the earth lies between 200° C to 400° C.  The temperature of the earth’s crust increases by 30° C for every kilometer

Understanding specific heat equation is always challenging for me but thanks to all science help websites to help me out.

Conclusion on crust of the earth:

Most of the rocks in the crust of the earth formed before 2.5 billion years ago. The interior crust of the earth makes up lithosphere. The lithosphere is converted into tectonic plates.

What is Microwave Technology

Introduction microwave technology:

The microwaves is a part of electromagnetic spectrum. Microwaves are the electromagnetic waves of frequency range 300 MHz to 300 GHz. They are produced by special vacuum tubes such as klystrons, magnetrons and Gunn diodes. There are several uses of the micro waves in the daily life. Let us discuss about the technology of the micro waves. Microwaves is used in the communication system. It is essential for carrying out all weather operations safely,used in military air crafts and for the telephonic communication.

Micro-wave Technology

The basic principle of working of the microwave is to create micro wave radiation of suitable frequency in the working space.This radiation may match the resonant frequency of rotation of water molecules which is about 3 GHz. In this situation, the energy from the waves is transferred efficiently to the kinetic energy of molecules. The microwave of this frequency is of energy equivalent to heating up water molecules. When microwaves of this particular frequency fall on food item containing water like fruits, vegetables, meat, cereals etc the water molecules absorb these radiations. Their energy increases. These molecules share their energy with neighboring food molecules. In this situation energy the Micro-wave is transferred efficiently to the kinetic energy of molecules.

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Uses of Micro-waves

The microwaves which are used in oven, we use the porcelain container containing food for cooking remains unaffected and cool where as only the food items get heated. It is so because the large molecules of porcelain container vibrate and rotate with much smaller frequency then that of microwave and thus absorb Micro-waves. Micro waves are also used in RADAR systems so that it can detect the air craft’s and other flying objects.  The very first microwave oven has a weight of about 750 pounds or more than it. The height of this microwave is more than 5 feet and came in the market in 1947. After 1960 the microwave oven is used in the domestic sectors. It reduces the time to cook the food.

Geothermal Alternative Energy

Introduction on geothermal alternative energy:

The earth from within is very hot. The heat inside the earth, under favorable conditions can be utilized as the source of energy. This energy is called Geothermal Energy. As Geo means Earth and Thermal means heat. Thus Geo-thermal energy can be defined as “the heat energy from hot rocks present inside the earth”.

Origin of geothermal alternative energy:

We know that deeper regions of earth’s crust are very, very hot. In these regions, the rocks melt to form magma. Geological changes in some regions of the earth push up magma upward. This magma is very hot and collects at some depth below the surface of the earth. The places under the surface of earth, where the hot magma collects at fairly less depths, are called hot spots of the earth. These hot spots are sources of geothermal energy.

Harnessing of geothermal alternative energy:

1. In some geological regions of the earth, the underground water comes in contact with hot spots and change into steam. The steam gets trapped in between the underground rocks and gets compressed to high pressure. This steam coming up at high pressure is used to run turbine connected to the generator. This produces electricity.

2. In some places, the steam does not get trapped. Instead it forces its way up through the cracks in the rocks along with hot water and gushes out from the surface of the earth to form Natural geysers.

3. In some geological places, there may be hot spots, but the underground water does not come in contact with them. In such regions, two holes are made in the earth crust. Through one hole is pumped in cold water. The cold water on coming in contact with hot spot changes to super heated steam, which emerges out from the other hole. The steam is then made to run a turbine coupled with generator to produce electricity.

Wind Energy for Homes

Introduction to wind energy:

Wind energy:- As we are very much familiar with the term wind energy ,wind energy is the energy produce by wind power. This is very old way of producing energy from natural phenomenon. It is a convection current which is produce by the uneven heating of the earth surface because of this wind always changes its direction and speed continuously and the pattern in which wind changes its speed and direction in given places is fairly constant through out the year. Wind blows because hot air want to come on upper side and cold air will stay at the lower level and because of this air blow at very faster speed and we can utilize this flow of air in different purposes.

Wind energy for homes

Wind energy for homes: We can use wind energy for the moving of wind turbine to produce electricity and we can easily use electricity for our different purposes at our home. We can also utilise wind turbines for grinding grains and pumping water for house hold purposes, and we can also setup our own wind generator by which we can produce electric power only for our use and it will be very cheap method to produce such a important form of energy.

These are the house hold machines which we can easily run with the help of wind energy and we can use it for multi things at the same time. so we can see here how much wind energy is important and how we can utilise wind energy in a good way and effective way.

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Advantages of wind energy for homes

We can use it for number of years if you setup it once.

This is one of the most cheapest source of energy and any body can afford it easily, so charges are very affordable.

We can store energy which we are producing by wind energy if our house hold requirement is down

This is natural phenomenon of producing energy so we need not depend on any body for our energy sources.

The only disadvantage of wind energy for homes is that only knowing person can handle it as it is very easy to handle but preknowledge is very important to handle it and we should know how it will give you maximum output by very less input, so knowledge of how to produce wind energy is very important.

Monday, June 3

Directional Compass

Introduction for directional compass:

A Directional compass is the device ,which gives the direction towards any sides,i.e. East ,West,North,South. This is very useful for us,in the sense  of moving to different places.It is a kind of device which is always found with the kind of different people who loves and like to visit different places.The reading a compass is not so difficult to see ,such very hard work to do as it is something which depends on the way we place the compass there is the a proper format to do all this prospect .When we place it,the compass gives the direction with degree also.The degree which may be in the form of  15 degree or may be in the form of ratio.There are different types of compass , one is the analog which will be place in the direction manually and the other is one which reads the direction automatically.The analog one is available in the market for normal people.Other is digital used for research purpose.I like to share this Newtons 3rd Law of Motion with you all through my article.

The compass are also of many type one is the analog which is place in the direction manually and other is one which reads the direction automatically.The analog one is  available in the market for a lesser cost.Other one is digital compass which is mainly used  for scientific activities,for research purpose,military and navigation purpose, and for surveying.There are enhanced functions are there in digital compass such as altitude measurement,atmospheric measurement etc developed by various sensors and electronic system which serves the purpose

Advantages of Using Directional Compass

The person will never lose his way.

The thing which is place some where Far can be found easily.

It useful when the people or group of members has gone for any mission.So the compass gives the direction about the side and degree in mountains.

The other profit is the compass is very easy to read and give the direction according to the place.

It is better to use a digital compass which will not betray in the way of  showing the direction.

Properties of a Compass

A good compass should not be inclined to any on the side.

The compass should be able to differentiate between the poles and normal place.

There are other constraint about the kind of land and angle the digital compass although has all the quality.

Milky Way Center

Introduction to milky way center:

Milky way  having a huge group of stars and spatial bodies .Our sun belongs to milky way galaxy While we look at the sky there are infinite numbers of stars. The common question that arises in our minds is how the stars are distributed in the space. Astronomers found that the stars are occurred in the huge groups. These large groups  of stars are called as the  Galaxies.

Explanation about the milky way galaxy center:

Galaxy:  This is a part of universe that has a huge group of stars and other celestial bodies nebulae, and interstellar material bound together by gravitational force is called as Galaxy.

Milky way galaxy having a  huge group of stars in the galaxy is held together by the gravitational attraction between them. A part from stars this  milky way galaxy having a huge cloud of gases at the center which  called as Nebulae (Birth place of new stars) A milky way galaxy may have planets and other celestial bodies. The minimum stars that contain in the  smallest galaxies are about 1000,000  stars  while  the  largest  contain  up  to  3000  billion  stars. It is estimated that there are around 100 billion galaxies in the universe. One important thing is Sun belongs to Milky Way Galaxy.Understanding fourth state of matter is always challenging for me but thanks to all science help websites to help me out.

Galaxy types-Milky way center

Types of galaxies:

Galaxies have different shapes and based on the shape of alignment of the stars it has divided into three types

Spiral galaxies

elliptical galaxies

Irregular galaxies.

Elliptical and Irregular galaxies

Spiral galaxies:

In a spiral galaxy the stars forms a big spiral pinwheel with radiating from the from the central hub. The Milky Way galaxy is an example of spiral galaxy. The word milky way word name derived from the Roman word “via galactic” which means the road of milk. Most of the galaxies in the milky way galaxy lie in a disc shaped region called galactic disc.

The central part of the disc is thicker and bulges on both the sides like a old fashioned sandwiched toaster. The density of stars in the bulge region is higher than the outer side. Starting from the center bulged region group of stars spread out of arms our sun is located in one spiral arms .The sun takes about 250 million years to complete one revolution around the galactic center.

Elliptical galaxies:

In an elliptical galaxy the stars are confined to a region mainly in ellipsoid volume.Here the group of stars in this galaxy shapes like egg like structure.Hence it got it names as elliptical structure. The elliptical galaxies are described by the American scientist “Hubble”.Most Elliptical galaxies are composed of older low mass stars with interstellar medium.These type of galaxies will be around 10-15% in the universe.

Irregular galaxies:

In irregular galaxy the alignment of group of stars are fashioned in a irregular manner .It doe not having a peculiar shape. Hence they got the name irregular galaxies. This type of galaxies is useful in understand the overall evolution of the galaxies. These are having a low Metallicity rate and high level of gases and seem to be the earliest galaxies that populated in the universe.

AC DC Current Difference

Introduction to AC DC current difference:

The electric current is the very basic and the important form of the energy. If there is no electricity, it affects our life a lot. There are two types of the electric current. One is called the alternating current (a.c) and the other is called the direct current (d.c). In our house holds the electricity coming form the power houses, this is the alternating current and the electric current which we get directly from a primary cell or the secondary cell is called the direct current. Here we discuss about the differences between the direct current and the alternating current.Please express your views of this topic Transfer of Heat by commenting on blog.

AC DC Current Difference:

The alternating current is the time varying current, which is alternating in the nature that means the direction is changing after every fixed interval of time. The direct current is also a time varying current but it is unidirectional current. The alternating current is representing by the sine function like I = I0 Sin wt, where w is the angular frequency of the alternating current and t be the instantaneous time. The direct current is simple represented by the I. The alternating current is the current which can travel with a large distances without being a large loss in energy while the direct current cannot travel through the long distances without any loss. The alternating current can travel only at the surface area of the wire that is why the wires carry the alternating current is the combination of large number of very thin wires. This effect of the alternating current is called the skin effect. The direct current can pass through the interior of the wire. We cannot use the capacitor or the inductor in the direct current devices because the frequency of the direct current is zero. In the alternating current, we cannot use the ohm’s law because there are three types of the resistances used, such as the inductance, capacitance and the ohmic resistance.

Conclusion of AC DC differences:

The alternating current is more dangerous than the direct current. The shock of the alternating current is repulsive while the shock of the direct current is attractive in nature. If we get the shock of 220 V that is the reading of the ac voltmeter that means we get the shock of the peak value of the ac voltage that means we get the shock of 220 × 1.414 V.

JJ Thomson Cathode Ray

Introduction to JJ Thomson cathode ray

JJ Thomson received the Nobel prize in 1906 for his revolutionary work on the discovery of electrons.

He discovered electrons from the minute observations while performing the cathode ray tube experiment.

He added a number of enhancements in the cathode ray tube experiment, the results of which proved that there did exist subatomic particles. Prior to the discovery of electrons by JJ Thomson, all scientists believed that atoms were the smallest units of matter and they were indivisible.I like to share this Examples of Momentum with you all through my article.

Description of JJ Thompson cathode ray tube experiment

The cathode ray tube experiment comprises of the following arrangement:-

A long glass tube called the cathode ray tube is taken and evacuated so that air pressure inside it falls to a very low value - around 10^-2 to 10^-6 Pascals.

A metal cathode and a metal anode are fixed inside the two ends of the cathode ray tube described above.

The metal anode is connected to the positive terminal of a battery and is thus also called as the positive electrode.

The metal cathode is connected to the negative terminal of the battery and is thus also called as the negative electrode.

When electric current passed through the circuit, fluorescent green rays called the cathode rays were emitted from cathode and traveled towards the anode.

Observations and conclusions of JJ Thomson from the cathode ray tube experiment

JJ Thomson observed the following points from the cathode ray tube experiment that led him to the discovery of electrons.

Observations and their corresponding conclusions

The cathode rays were attracted by the positively charged anode - thus, the cathode rays were negatively charged.

The cathode rays were deflected by electric and magnetic fields - this further proves that they were negatively charged.

The cathode rays cast shadow of an object kept in their path - this proves that they travel in straight lines.

The cathode rays cause a light paper wheel kept in their path to rotate about its axis - this proves that they are composed of particles of some kind, because only matter can cause matter to move.

These were the main observations made by JJ Thomson in his cathode ray tube experiment. Thus, he concluded that the cathode rays consisted of some negatively charged particles called electrons, and thus, an atom could not be indivisible. The discovery of electrons in the beginning of the 20th century marked the beginning of a century of further discoveries that would introduce new concepts in science.

Paramagnetism and Diamagnetism

Introduction to Paramagnetism and Diamagnetism:

1. Diamagnetic substances are those which have tendency to move from stronger to the weaker part of the extended magnetic field.  In other words, unlike the way a magnet attracts metals like iron, it would repel a diamagnetic substance.

2. Paramagnetic substances are those which get weakly magnetized when placed in an external magnetic field.  They have tendency to move from a region to weak magnetic field to strong magnetic field i.e. they get weakly attracted to a magnate.

Diamagnetism: paramagnetism and diamagnetism

Diamagnetism: The simplest explanation for diamagnetism is as follows:

(a)Electron in an atom orbiting around nucleus possess orbital angular momentum.  These orbiting electrons are equivalent to current carrying loop and thus possess orbital magnetic movement.

(b)Diamagnetic substances are those ones in which resultant magnetic movement in a atom is zero.  When magnetic field is applied those electrons having orbital magnetic movement in the same directions slow down and those in the oppo0site direction speed up.  This happens due to induced current in accordance with the lenz’s law.

(c)Some diamagnetic materials are bismuth, copper, lead, silicon, nitrogen, water and sodium chloride.

(d)Diamagnetism is present in all the substances.  However, the effect is so weak in most cases that it gets shifted by other effects like paramagnetism, ferromagnetism etc.

(e)The most exotic diamagnetic material are super conductors.  These are metals, cool to very low temperatures which exhibits both perfect conductivity and perfect diamagnetism.  A superconductor repels a magnet and is repelled by the magnet.

Paramagnetism: paramagnetism and diamagnetism


(a)The individual atoms of a paramagnetic material posses a permanent magnetic dipole movement of their own.  On account of the ceaseless random thermal motion of the atoms, no net magnetization is seen.

(b)In the presence of external field, which is strong enough, and at low temperature, the individual atomic dipole movement can be made to align and point in the same direction as the external field.

(c)Some paramagnetic materials are aluminium, sodium, calcium, oxygen and copper chloride. Experimentally, one finds that the magnetization of a paramagnetic material is inversely proportional to the absolute temperature T.

M = CB0/T

This is known as Curie’s law.