Sunday, June 9

3 Ways to Conserve Energy

Introduction to 3 ways to conserve energy:
It is necessary to conserve coal and petroleum resources of the earth by reducing their consumption so that they may last for as long as possible. Coal is used mainly to produce electricity. So, if we can save electricity, then the consumption of coal will be automatically reduced.

Conserving energy:

The petroleum products kerosene and LPG are used for cooking food, and petrol and diesel are used as fuel in motor vehicles, so if we can save on kerosene. LPG, petrol and diesel, then the consumption of petroleum will also get reduce.

Three steps to Conserve energy:

Some of the steps which can be taken to conserve energy resources are as follows:

Switch off the lights, fans television and other electrical appliances when not needed. This will save a lot of electricity. Use energy efficient electrical appliances to save electricity. This can be done by using Compact Fluorescent Lamps and Fluorescent tube lights instead of traditional filament-type electric bulbs because CFL and tube-lights consume much less electric energy as compared to filament-type electric bulbs for producing the same amount of light. Use stairs to climb at least up to three floors of a building instead of taking a lift. This will save electricity.Having problem with Elastic Potential Energy Formula keep reading my upcoming posts, i will try to help you.

Pressure cookers should be used for cooking food to save fuels like kerosene and LPG. Good quality stoves should be used to burn fuels like kerosene and cooking gas so as to obtain maximum heat. Solar cookers should be used to cook food wherever possible.

The use of bio gas as domestic fuel should be encouraged in rural areas. Bicycles should be used for covering short distances to save precious fuel like petrol. Public transport system in cities should be improved so that people do not commute in their personal vehicle. This will save a lot of petrol and diesel. Fuel efficient engines of motor vehicles should be designed to reduce the consumption of petrol and diesel.

White Light Interference

Introduction to Interference of white light:

The phenomenon of interference of light have proved the legality of light’s wave theory. Thomas Young successfully demonstrated his experiment on interference of light in 1802. When two or else more wave train acts concurrently on any constituent part in a means afterward the displacement of the particle at any instantaneous is due to the superposing of all the wave train. Also, after superimposing, the region of cross over, the wave train appear as if they have not interfered at all. Each wave train retains its individual characteristics. Each wave train behaves as if others are absent. This principle was illustrated by Huygens in 1678.

I like to share this Wave Theory of Light with you all through my article.

What is interference of light?

The interfering of light is the phenomenon of redistribution of light energy in a medium on account of superposition of light waves from two coherent sources. At the points where the resultant intensity of the light is maximum the interference is said to be the constructive one but the point where the intensity of the light is minimum the interference is named as destructive interference.

Interference of White Light

When the white light is used in interference, the center of the fringe pattern of the interference is white while the other fringes on both side of the central fringe in the interference pattern are colored shown in fig.1 because of the fringe width depends upon wavelength. The fringe width β is given by

`beta = (lambda D) / d`

Where λ is the wavelength of the light and D is the distance of the screen on which the interference pattern is observed from the slits and d is the spacing of the double slits.

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Conclusion for the Interference of White Light

From the discussion on interference of white light, we conclude that the above formula indicating the fringe width varies linearly with the wavelength apart from the central fringe, the fringes on both sides of the central fringe which is bright are colored and have a pattern of increasing width and at the end when the pattern reaches the red color of the white light, the fringe is very broad and no other fringe is observed after it.

Thursday, June 6

Future of Solar Power

Introduction to the Future of Solar Power:

We can define solar energy as the limitless and as well as the clean source of energy from the sun.

The future of our solar power or energy  depends on several factors. The various factors are discussed below:

The future of solar power depends primarily on one of the factor that is its cost of production. As the  renewable energy that is  coal and other fossil fuels are much cheaper when compared with the solar power production.

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But the scientists are predicting grid parity. It is the point where the cost of the solar power will be equivalent to the cost of the renewable based energy. Grid parity has been achieved already that is California which produces approximately 45 kWh by using commercial solar panel rooftop systems. We can also develop grid parity for residential places to get power from the solar system as the renewable energies are getting depleted. But we will have to wait to use the solar power till the cost of solar power gets dropped or cheaper or cost effective than the renewable resources which we are using now.

As it is not cheaper or due to some technical limitations the use of solar energy is difficult now. But it will surely replace other power resources which we are using now in future by using giant solar collectors in space which can be used by grid.

Most of the small devices such as the mobiles we are using the solar power to recharge it. The price of the solar power will get reduced when all the peoples will start to use the solar power in our home and all places. Solar cars which we are using are environment friendly as it do not make the environment worst.

Global warming problems can be reduced when we will use the solar power in all the places and will make the environment cleaner.

Problem facing the future of solar power

The first problem which we are facing in the future of solar power is the the large space required to construct or build the solar power plants which will comprised of solar panels to store the energy which can be used by the grid. The construction of the new buildings with the solar panels fitted on top of the roofs so that the solar power can be easily used by the people.

It is not economical to produce such a large amount of power from sun.

The solar energy cannot be used directly from the sun.

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How to produce solar power

The solar energy is converted into electrical energy by the photo voltaic cells which can be used for domestic requirements. The electrical energy produced from the sun during the daytime is stored in the battery which can be used in the form of direct current. The inverter is used to convert DC supply to AC supply of 110V to power all the domestic lighting's and appliances.

As the solar energy is available directly from the sun freely, we do not have to bear any costs of the fuel to produce electricity from solar power and the maintenance cost of this very less almost zero.

The another problem which we are facing is that PV cells can generate only small amount of electricity and to increase this amount of power we have to use large layers of silicon slices in cells.

The Crust of the Earth

Introduction to crust of earth:

In the ancient time when the earth was formed it was very cold. This earth is called as the primitive earth. As more and more planetesimals collided with the primitive earth and stuck to it, their kinetic energy got converted into heat. Radioactive disintegration of the elements, such as Uranium, Thorium etc and contraction of earth due to gravitational force also heated the primitive earth. This heating of primitive earth gradually raises its temperature and the primitive earth melted. The molten material of the earth then began to reorganize into layered structure under the influence of gravity. During the formation of layered structure the lighter molten rose up to the surface to make the earth’s crust.

Description on crust of the earth:

There are three major layers of earth out of which the uppermost layer is called the crust of the earth. The thickness of the crust of earth varies from place to place. It lies between 35 km to 60 km under continents and about 10 km under oceans. The ocean crust is different from the continental crust. The ocean crust is made up of basalt, diabase and gabbro. The continental and the ocean crust float on the second layer of earth called mantle.   The crust of the earth generally composed of lighter elements. About 75% of the earth’s crust is covered with water. The crust of the earth is composed of igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks. The crust of the earth occupies the earth’s volume by less than 1%. The average density for the upper crust lies between 2.7 gram per cubic centimeter and 2.74 gram per cubic centimeter. The average density of the lower crust lies between 3.0 gram per cubic centimeter and 3.25 gram per cubic centimeter. The temperature of the crust of the earth increases with the depth. The temperature of the crust of the earth lies between 200° C to 400° C.  The temperature of the earth’s crust increases by 30° C for every kilometer

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Conclusion on crust of the earth:

Most of the rocks in the crust of the earth formed before 2.5 billion years ago. The interior crust of the earth makes up lithosphere. The lithosphere is converted into tectonic plates.

What is Microwave Technology

Introduction microwave technology:

The microwaves is a part of electromagnetic spectrum. Microwaves are the electromagnetic waves of frequency range 300 MHz to 300 GHz. They are produced by special vacuum tubes such as klystrons, magnetrons and Gunn diodes. There are several uses of the micro waves in the daily life. Let us discuss about the technology of the micro waves. Microwaves is used in the communication system. It is essential for carrying out all weather operations safely,used in military air crafts and for the telephonic communication.

Micro-wave Technology

The basic principle of working of the microwave is to create micro wave radiation of suitable frequency in the working space.This radiation may match the resonant frequency of rotation of water molecules which is about 3 GHz. In this situation, the energy from the waves is transferred efficiently to the kinetic energy of molecules. The microwave of this frequency is of energy equivalent to heating up water molecules. When microwaves of this particular frequency fall on food item containing water like fruits, vegetables, meat, cereals etc the water molecules absorb these radiations. Their energy increases. These molecules share their energy with neighboring food molecules. In this situation energy the Micro-wave is transferred efficiently to the kinetic energy of molecules.

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Uses of Micro-waves

The microwaves which are used in oven, we use the porcelain container containing food for cooking remains unaffected and cool where as only the food items get heated. It is so because the large molecules of porcelain container vibrate and rotate with much smaller frequency then that of microwave and thus absorb Micro-waves. Micro waves are also used in RADAR systems so that it can detect the air craft’s and other flying objects.  The very first microwave oven has a weight of about 750 pounds or more than it. The height of this microwave is more than 5 feet and came in the market in 1947. After 1960 the microwave oven is used in the domestic sectors. It reduces the time to cook the food.

Geothermal Alternative Energy

Introduction on geothermal alternative energy:

The earth from within is very hot. The heat inside the earth, under favorable conditions can be utilized as the source of energy. This energy is called Geothermal Energy. As Geo means Earth and Thermal means heat. Thus Geo-thermal energy can be defined as “the heat energy from hot rocks present inside the earth”.

Origin of geothermal alternative energy:

We know that deeper regions of earth’s crust are very, very hot. In these regions, the rocks melt to form magma. Geological changes in some regions of the earth push up magma upward. This magma is very hot and collects at some depth below the surface of the earth. The places under the surface of earth, where the hot magma collects at fairly less depths, are called hot spots of the earth. These hot spots are sources of geothermal energy.

Harnessing of geothermal alternative energy:

1. In some geological regions of the earth, the underground water comes in contact with hot spots and change into steam. The steam gets trapped in between the underground rocks and gets compressed to high pressure. This steam coming up at high pressure is used to run turbine connected to the generator. This produces electricity.

2. In some places, the steam does not get trapped. Instead it forces its way up through the cracks in the rocks along with hot water and gushes out from the surface of the earth to form Natural geysers.

3. In some geological places, there may be hot spots, but the underground water does not come in contact with them. In such regions, two holes are made in the earth crust. Through one hole is pumped in cold water. The cold water on coming in contact with hot spot changes to super heated steam, which emerges out from the other hole. The steam is then made to run a turbine coupled with generator to produce electricity.

Wind Energy for Homes

Introduction to wind energy:

Wind energy:- As we are very much familiar with the term wind energy ,wind energy is the energy produce by wind power. This is very old way of producing energy from natural phenomenon. It is a convection current which is produce by the uneven heating of the earth surface because of this wind always changes its direction and speed continuously and the pattern in which wind changes its speed and direction in given places is fairly constant through out the year. Wind blows because hot air want to come on upper side and cold air will stay at the lower level and because of this air blow at very faster speed and we can utilize this flow of air in different purposes.

Wind energy for homes

Wind energy for homes: We can use wind energy for the moving of wind turbine to produce electricity and we can easily use electricity for our different purposes at our home. We can also utilise wind turbines for grinding grains and pumping water for house hold purposes, and we can also setup our own wind generator by which we can produce electric power only for our use and it will be very cheap method to produce such a important form of energy.

These are the house hold machines which we can easily run with the help of wind energy and we can use it for multi things at the same time. so we can see here how much wind energy is important and how we can utilise wind energy in a good way and effective way.

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Advantages of wind energy for homes

We can use it for number of years if you setup it once.

This is one of the most cheapest source of energy and any body can afford it easily, so charges are very affordable.

We can store energy which we are producing by wind energy if our house hold requirement is down

This is natural phenomenon of producing energy so we need not depend on any body for our energy sources.

The only disadvantage of wind energy for homes is that only knowing person can handle it as it is very easy to handle but preknowledge is very important to handle it and we should know how it will give you maximum output by very less input, so knowledge of how to produce wind energy is very important.