Thursday, November 15

Bernoulli's Principle

Bernoulli's Principle

Daniel Bernoulli was the one who formulated the Bernoulli principle.The Bernoulli's Principle Definition states a relation b/w v, p and h of non viscous fluid. The flow is horizontal in nature. Here p is the
pressure, v is the velocity and h is the height.

According to the Bernoulli principle the v and p of the fluid that is flowing are inversely proportional to each other, that is if the velocity would increase then it will lead to a decrease in the pressure of the
fluid.I like to share this Atomic Mass of Oxygen with you all through my article.

Bernoulli principle equation can be stated as:

P / p g + v2 / 2 g + z = K

This is called Bernoulli's Principle Equation where

P / p g = pressure energy per unit weight fluid or pressure head.

V2 / 2 g = kinetic energy per unit weight or kinetic head.

z = potential energy per unit weight or potential head.


P = pressure, p = rho

There are quite many Bernoulli's Principle Examples. Let us just take a simple one. Consider the air plane flying. How is it possible? Have you ever thought about it? Well the answer lies in the Bernoulli principle
which is kept in mind while designing the wings so that the pressure exerted from below the wings is greater than that exerted from the top and the plane rises up in the sky. Even you can consider the cars

whose tires are built in such a manner that during racing the pressure is exerted such that the car remains on the track.Understanding Absorbance Units is always challenging for me but thanks to all math help websites to help me out.

Bernoulli principle is also used in designing of scientific devices like Venturi meter. It is also used for making orifice meter. Have you heard  about the pilot tube, yes it is also based on the same principle. The
venture in the carburetor of the vehicles also works on this principle. Channel hydraulic is another area of application.

Like these there are endless applications and many are yet to be discovered. All of these come under fluid flow. So when we consider the fluid flow we can assume that this principle will be applied and
hence sum of all the components acting in a particular direction would remain constant whatsoever. This is an important implication of  Bernoulli principle and should be remembered. We can consider the
movement or the flow of both types of liquids that is viscous liquids and also the non viscous flow. It is important to note that the type or nature of liquid may affect the pressure etc. but overall they remain constant.

Thursday, November 8

Standard for Atomic Mass

Introduction to standard for atomic mass:

Atomic mass is the mass of a single atom and it is usually expressed in atomic mass units (or amu). Most of the atomic mass is concentrated in the nucleus, in the protons and neutrons contained. Since each proton or neutron weighs about 1 amu, the atomic mass is always very close to the mass number (or the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus). The atomic masse is usually determined by mass spectrography and the atoms of the isotopes of an element have the same atomic mass. It has been determined with great relative accuracy, but its absolute value is less certain.Looking out for more help on Carbon Atomic Mass in algebra by visiting listed websites.

Standard Atomic Mass

Atomic mass is the mass of an atom or molecule on a scale where the mass of a carbon-12 (12C) atom is exactly 12. Atomic mass or the mass of any atom is approximately equal to the total number of its protons and neutrons multiplied by the atomic mass unit (u) which is 1.660539 × 10-24 gram since electrons are much lighter. The atoms do not differ much from this simple formula, but only by less than 1%.

Atomic mass unit or amu

Atomic mass unit or amu is the unit defined as exactly 1/12th of the mass of a carbon-12 atom. The carbon-12 is an isotope of carbon with six protons and six neutrons in its nucleus. One amu is equivalent to 1.66 × 10−24 grams or 1.66 × 10--27 kg, approximately. The masses of individual atoms are expressed in terms of Atomic Mass Unit or amu. The standard is the unit of mass equals to one-twelfth the mass of the carbon atom, having as nucleus the isotope with mass number 12. Atomic mass unit has the abbreviation as amu and also known as dalton. I am planning to write more post on Rotational Energy, The first Law of Thermodynamics. Keep checking my blog.

Atomic Mass of Isotopes:

The discovery of isotopes complicated the situation. For example, pure oxygen is composed of a mixture of isotopes in nature and some of the oxygen atoms are more massive than others. This was not problem for the calculations since the relative abundance of the isotopes remained as the same [or constant]. In such cases, the average mass of its atoms expressed in amu is taken as the relative atomic mass of a chemical element.

Magnetic Field of the Earth

Introduction to Magnetic field of earth

Sir William gilbert was the first to suggest in year 1600, that earth itself is a huge magnet. His statement was based on the following evidence:

I. A magnet suspended from a thread and free to rotate in the horizontal plane comes to rest along the north-south direction. On disturbing, the magnet returns quickly to its north-south direction. This is as if a huge magnet lies along the diameter of earth. The north pole of this fictitious magnet must be towards geographical south so as to attract south pole of the suspended magnet and vice-versa.

II.When a soft iron piece is buried under earth’s surface in the north south direction, it is found to acquire the properties of a magnet after some time.I like to share this Magnets Rare Earth with you all through my article.

III.When we draw field lines of a magnet, we come  across neutral points. At these points, magnetic field due to the magnet is neutralized or cancelled exactly by the magnetic field of earth. If earth has no magnetism of its own, we would never observe neutral points.

Cause of Magnetic Field of the Earth

The exact cause of earth magnetism is not yet known. However, some important postulates in this respect are as follows:

a) According to Prof. Brackett, earth’s magnetism may be due to rotation of about its axis. This is because every substance is made up of charged particles. Therefore, a substance rotating about its axis is equivalent to circulating currents, which are responsible for the magnetization.

b)In the outer layers of the earth’s atmosphere, gases are in the ionized state, primarily on account of cosmic rays. As earth rotates, strong electric currents are setup due to movement of ions. These currents might be magnetizing the earth.Is this topic Transverse Waves and Longitudinal Waves hard for you? Watch out for my coming posts.

c)The earth’s core is very hot and molten. Circulating ions in the highly conducting liquid region of the earth’s core could form current loops and produce a magnetic field.

General Features of Earth’s Magnetic Field

It has been established that earth’s magnetic field is fairly uniform. The strength of this magnetic field at the surface of earth is approximately 10-4 tesla or 1 gauss. The field is not confined only to earth’s surface, it extends upto a height nearly 5 times the radius of earth.  At present the south pole of earth is located at a place on north Canada, longitude 960 W and latitude 70.50 N and the north pole is located diametrically opposite the south pole i.e. at longitude 840 E and latitude 70.50 S. The magnetic poles are approximately 2000 km away from geographic poles.

Conservation of Kinetic Energy

Introduction to Conservation of kinetic Energy:

Have you ever observed a ball when thrown vertically upward with certain force? It goes to a certain height and comes back to the ground when it strikes the ground it bounces back in upward direction once again. Do you know what different forms of energy are involved here and what energy conversion is going on in this motion? Before understanding this, let us try to understand what Conservation of Energy is.

For an isolated system, the total amount of energy remains conserved. In other words we can say that energy can neither be created nor destroyed, it can only be changed from one form to the other. Conservation of energy tells that the total amount of energy remains unchanged. However, during a process or activity one form of energy may get changed to the other form, but if you calculate the total amount of energy, it will remain conserved.

Conservation of Energy when Ball Going Up

For an example If a is ball thrown vertically upward. Using our muscle energy, we provide some kinetic energy to ball and ball starts moving with this kinetic energy in upward direction. As the ball goes up its kinetic energy starts converting into potential energy. As a result the kinetic energy of the ball start decreasing and potential energy of the ball starts increasing. Due to decrease in kinetic energy, the velocity of the keeps on decreasing and finally at one point it becomes zero. This is the highest point up to which ball can go. At this point the total kinetic energy of the ball has converted into potential energy.

Thus at highest point, ball has no kinetic energy and highest potential energy. It is interesting to know that the potential energy as this point is equal to initial kinetic energy of the ball. This is as per the conservation of energy because kinetic energy is converted into potential energy but total amount of energy remains same.

Conservation of Energy when Ball Falls Down

Now ball starts falling down with this potential energy and as it falls down under gravity, its potential energy starts converting into kinetic energy. As a result the potential energy decreases and kinetic energy increases and velocity of the ball goes on increasing. The moment when ball strikes the ground, all its potential energy is converted into kinetic energy and once again due to conservation of energy, this energy is equal to the potential energy at the top as well as to the initial kinetic energy.

Saturday, November 3

Electrical Current Production

Introduction to electrical current production:

Electric current is defined as the migration of electric charge. The electrical current may consist of charged particles that are in motion of any origin; a majority of these comprise electrons. The flow of charged particles forming the electrical current may be in either of the direction or sometimes in both the directions simultaneously.

                                                                Image flow of electron

How is Electrical Current Produced

Current is usually generated by the electromechanical generators which are run by steam obtained from the combustion of fossil fuels or in some cases by the heat that is discharged from the nuclear reactions or production of the current is possible from various other sources such as kinetic energy which is extracted from running water or from wind. Steam turbines produce up to 80% of the electrical current using a large variety of sources. Continuous production of electrical current is required since very large quantities of current cannot be stored that may be required for meeting the large-scale demands of the nation. Generation of electrical current from renewable sources such as hydropower and wind are gaining importance due to concerns with regard to the environment.

Some other Sources of Production of Electrical Current
Burning of fossil fuels such as natural gas, coal, crude oil occurs in the power plants where most of the electric energy is generated. This massive production accounts for the gases emitted into the earth’s atmosphere from the green houses gases. The heat that is produced by burning fuel is generally utilized for the evaporation of huge volumes of water, creating steam that is required by the steam turbine where it is converted into mechanical work. This mechanical work is efficiently converted into electrical current by connecting the drive shaft of the turbine to the mechanical generator.
Using an electrochemical generator for the production of electrical current: An electrochemical generator with a cell that contains an anode compartment and an aqueous solution in motion. The active metallic material loses electrons after being oxidized, which is collected through the anodic electron collector.

                                                     Image of electrochemical generator

Conclusion for Production of Electrical Current

To conclude, electrical current is produced from a variety of sources that range from fossil fuels to wind or water. A change in the magnetic field results in a change in the flux, resulting in the production of electrical current.

Alternating Current Motors

Introduction to Alternating Current Motors:

The electric motor which works under the alternating supply of current is named as the alternating current motor. As the name suggest this motor is driven only by the alternating current and if one give a direct current to the motor then the motor does not work or may get damaged. The alternating current motor consists of two major but the basic parts as, the stator which is generally fixed outside and is stationary but there exists some motor which have the stator fixed within it and the second part is rotor, which is connected both inside and outside the motor. The outside rotor is used to increase the inertia and the cooling of the motor. The outside stator has the coils to which the alternating current is supplied to produce a rotating magnetic field in the coil. The inside rotor is attached to the output shaft of the motor which gives a torque due to the rotating magnetic field. The alternating current motor of a ceiling fan is shown in the fig.1.

                                                   Fig.1 Alternating current motor of ceiling fan

Types of Alternating Current Motors

Without considering the eddy current motors, while going through the alternating current motors, alternating current motors are broadly has two types:

Synchronous motors:  These alternating current motors are the simplest kind of the alternating current motors. They rotate at a frequency which is either exactly same as the supply frequency or is a multiple of the supply frequency. In these motors the magnetic field which is generated on the rotor is either due to the current which is delivered through the slip rings or due to a permanent magnet.
Induction motors: These alternating current motors are also the simple alternating current motors but they rotate at a frequency slightly less than the supply frequency. Thus these motors run slowly. In these motors, the magnetic field which is generated on the rotor is only due to the induced current inside the coil of the motor.

Conclusion on Alternating Current Motors

From the discussion we made on alternating current motors, we conclude the importance of alternating currents and its varied application in day to day life.

Ferromagnetic Domains

Introduction to ferromagnetic domains:
The ferromagnetic substances are those in which each individual atoms or molecules or ions have a non zero magnetic moment as in the paramagnetic substances. When the ferromagnetic substances are placed in an external magnetizing field, they get strongly magnetized in the direction of the field. Ferromagnetism has been explained by Weiss on the basis of domain theory in addition to the usual electron theory.Please express your views of this topic Ferromagnetic Metals by commenting on blog.

Domains in Ferromagnetic Substances

The each atom of a ferromagnetic substance is a tiny magnetic dipole having permanent dipole moment. However in ferromagnetic materials, atoms form a very large number of small effective regions called domains. Each domain has a linear dimension of 1000 A° and contains about 1010 atoms. Within each domain a special interaction called exchange coupling renders dipole moments of all the atoms in a particular direction. Thus each domain is a strong magnet without any external magnetic field. In spite of this, a ferromagnetic substance does not behave as a magnet, because in the absence of the external magnetic field, the magnetic moments of the different domains are randomly oriented so that their resultant magnetic moment in any direction is zero.Is this topic Permanent Magnet Generator for Sale hard for you? Watch out for my coming posts.

When an external magnetic field is applied on the ferromagnetic substance, it gets strongly magnetized. This can be explained as follows:

(i) Displacement of boundaries of the domains, i.e., domain which are oriented in the direction of the applied field increase in size and the domains which are oriented opposite to the field deceases in size.

(ii) Rotation of domain, i.e., the domain rotate till their magnetic moments are aligned in the direction of the applied magnetic filed. This would happen only when the magnetic field applied is very strong.

                                                   Image of the ferromagnetic domains

Conclusion for the Ferromagnetic Domains

From the above discussion we can say that when the domains have aligned along the magnetic field and amalgamated to form a single giant domain. This is how ferromagnetic material gets strongly magnetized in the direction of the applied field. The examples of the ferromagnetic materials are iron, cobalt, nickel and some are the rare earth materials as gadolinium and dysprosium.