Showing posts with label Exploration Mars. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Exploration Mars. Show all posts

Wednesday, April 10

Man Landing on Mars

Introduction to man landing on mars:

Mars is the 4th planet from the sun.  It is called the "Red planet" because of its reddish appearance. Mars have similar surface feature compared to our earth and moon such as volcanoes, valleys, deserts, polar ice caps and the impact craters of the moon.The seasonal cycles of mars as well as the rotational period is very much similar to the Earth. Mars has two moons, Phobos and Deimos. Mars was formed around the same time as the Earth. Both Mars and earth are rocky planets. Mars diameter is almost half the diameter of the earth, a far thin atmosphere and desert-like surface too. Mars has the same land area as the Earth as we know that our earth's surface has only a quarter area of land, the remaining being water.

Exploration of Mars

The Soviet Union, United States of America, Europe and Japan are active participants in the space exploration program which involves the exploration of the planet Mars. Dozens of robotic spacecraft, including rovers, landers and orbiters have been launched towards Mars since 1960s. These missions were carried out in order to gather data about the planet's current conditions and history and also whether any  possibility for the sustenance of human life on the planet.

After many attempts of landing on Venus, Venera-7 landed on Venus in the year 1970. Another, Mariner-10 has also passed by Mercury and sent back pictures of the mountains and the craters there. Mars is even more interesting and both the Russians and Americans have sent space crafts to it. The Viking, launched by the Americans made gentle landing there in 1976, sending back pictures direct from the surface. Jupiter and Saturn have also been bypassed. Both Voyager-I and 2 sent back clear pictures of Jupiter's clouds and moons and the rings of Saturn whereas Viking I and II sent back data about the Martian atmosphere and soil apart from sending images of Mars.

Meanwhile the USA and the former USSR undertook a joint US-Soviet manned space mission called the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project. The Apollo Spacecraft carrying three astronauts and the Soyuz-19 Spacecraft, carrying two cosmonauts were launched separately on 15th July 1975. Two days later, the spacecraft approached each other and docked in space. For two days, the crew conducted joint experiments and surveys. Many other probes were launched during the decade of the seventies. The space probe Pioneer-10 sent by USA explored the asteroid belt and took photographs of Jupiter from a close range.

The eighties have seen many significant developments in space science. Space shuttles were designed by the US. The space shuttle takes off like a rocket, flies like a spaceship and lands like a glider. Unlike an ordinary rocket it can be used again and again. The picture below shows a space shuttle Columbia gliding into land. This first space shuttle was launched in 1981.

Landing of Man on Mars

The permanent manned space station called Mir was launched by the Soviet Union in 1986. Since then many crew have manned this space station and conducted experiments in space.

The year 1997 marked the return to the red planet. For almost twenty years every Mars mission ended in failure. The two Russian Phobos crafts failed. The US Mars observer exploded as it prepared to enter the planet's orbit and the mighty Russian Mars' 96 craft did not escape from earth's atmosphere. Finally Mars path finder parachuted down to Mars and its new landing technology proved to be a success. A little six-wheeled river Sojourner, spent nearly three months analyzing Martian rocks before the battery went flat. More missions have been planned, to bring rock samples to earth and even to land first human on Mars.

Barack Obama the "President of the United States of America"  truly believes that in the next 20-25 years, humans can be sent to orbit Mars followed by a safe landing and shall return safely back to earth. A number of nations and organisations have long-term intentions to send Humans to the planet Mars. The United States  has a number  of missions currently exploring Mars. The European nations has sent robotic probes and has long-term plans to send humans too. Russia, Japan and China are keen in sending humans to Mars too.

"Its high time the beings in outer space stop chomping on their Alien bars,

Because the humans are bound to land on MARS"