Wednesday, May 15

Diffraction Waves

Let us define diffraction first. As we know diffraction is the bending of the waves when they collide with an obstacle. It is also possible when the waves pass through the slit etc. Now the point to think here is something our discussion will be about. Imagine there is a wall between you and your friend. The wall has a little hole on the top. Your friend calls you from the other side. You will be able to hear his voice that is for sure. How do you think this is possible? This is because of the bending of the sound waves and their spherical passage through the hole in the wall. So, waves that we referred to in the above definition will include both sound and light waves.

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Diffraction sound is an interesting phenomenon in itself. Imagine a sound proof room. It is sound-proof; this means that it does not have any small or big openings which would have otherwise led to this phenomenon.
While discussing sound diffraction we should also take in account the wavelength of the sound wave. When the order of wavelength of the obstacle or its size is the order of the wavelength of the sound waves which pass through it then we will be able to experience the phenomena. This is because in other cases the effect will be negligible.

As already mentioned the diffraction of a wave may include both light waves as well as sound waves. In fact the sensation of vision is mostly possible because of this phenomenon. Sound waves also have the ability of reflection. This combined gives rise to many interesting phenomena.

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Let us also discuss a few examples of this.
When sitting in a auditorium; even when it is curved or spherical we are able to hear the sound due to its bending at collision with various objects. Also consider a big building and someone playing music at one end and people standing at other side of the building. Sound obviously exhibits the phenomenon of diffraction in this case. Drums playing in a marriage and you being able to hear it inside your house are another example of the same combined with reflection of sound waves.

Even take an example of sound barriers build to protect the tenants from traffic noise. But then also people are able to hear the noise in a lower amount. This is also because of the same phenomenon.

Potential Energy Facts

Introduction to facts related to potential energy:

Object stores energy by the effect of its position and this energy is known as potential energy. Suppose, when a demolition machine lifts its heavy ball, it stores energy in it. This energy stored because of position is known as potential energy. Similarly, energy is stored in a drawn bow because of its position. When in equilibrium (i.e., when not drawn), no energy is stored in the bow. However, when its position is altered it stores energy by the virtue of changing position. This stored energy is potential energy. The 19th century Scottish engineer and physicist William Rankine coined the term potential energy. Its SI unit is Joules denoted by ‘J’.

Overview on Potential Energy

Energy that is stored within a system is potential energy. Potential energy exists when an object is tending to pull towards some lower energy position. This force is known as restoring force. Suppose, a spring is stretched to the left then a force will work to the right to bring it back in the original position. For this energy is required. The energy required in restoring the spring is stored in metal. Thus, as the law of conservation of energy state, energy cannot disappear and hence, stored as potential energy.

General rule

PE = mgh

Change in the potential energy is denoted by ?U. Commonly used notations for potential energy are U, Ep, and PE.

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Some other types of potential energies

Gravitational Potential energy

PE = mgh

m = mass, g = gravity (9.8m/s), h = height

Elastic Potential energy

PEelastic = 0.5kx^2

k = spring constant, x = expansion or compression amount

Chemical potential energy – Energy related to the molecular or atomic structural arrangement is known as Chemical potential energy.

Electrical potential energy – Potential energy in an object due to its electric charge is electrical potential energy. It is divided into two parts i.e. Electrostatic Potential energy and Electrodynamics’ potential energy.

Nuclear potential energy – Potential energy inside an atomic nucleus is known as nuclear potential energy.

Motion in One Dimension

Introduction to motion in one dimension:-
When a object moves in a straight line, motion of the object is called as motion in one dimension.

This type of motion is also called as linear motion. For example, 1. A ball moves on a level road in straight Line,  2. A ball is thrown straight up, 3. Free falling bodies. One dimensional motion is the simplest motion in physics.

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Some definitions orf motion in one dimensions:

Displacement-   the shortest distance between initial and final point is called as displacement.

Distance- the length of path travelled by object between initial and final points is called as distance travelled by object.

Speed – speed of object can be calculated by eq.  -         Speed = distance/ time.

Average speed-          average speed is the average of all speeds attained by object during trip.

It can be calculated by eq. -           average speed = total distance travelled / total time taken

Velocity-   velocity of the object can be calculated by eq.-    velocity = displacement / time

General Units of velocity is meter/second, kilometer/hour, miles/ hour. SI unit of velocity is meter/second.

Average velocity- average velocity of object can be calculated by eq. –

Average velocity = change in position / time interval

Acceleration- acceleration of the object is the rate of change of velocity. It can be calculated by eq.-

Acceleration = change in velocity / time interval

Uniform motion- when speed of the object is constant throughout one dimensional motion. Motion is called as uniform motion.

Non-uniform motion- speed in non-uniform motions is not constant and these motions have acceleration.

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Distance- time graph : Motion in one dimension

Distance- time graph in one dimensional motion is drawn between distance travelled and time. For uniform one dimensional motion this graph shows a straight line. Slope of line represents the velocity of motion. For non-uniform one dimensional motion, this graph shows a curve.

Thursday, May 2

Integrated Data Communication

Introduction to Integrated Data Communication:

Integrated Data Communications  (IDC) is a Seattle-based integrator of wireless voice and data solutions for mobile devices and computers. IDC enable us to send and receive high-value data ubiquitously -- regardless of technology, device or network.

It is a technology which enables the transmission of data over digital wireless voice channels while not requiring changes to the existing network infrastructure.

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Concept of integrated data communication

Integrated data communications (IDC) is an application of telecommunications technology to solve the problem of transmitting data, especially to and from, or between computers. Generally, it is said that using integrated data communications one computer can “talk" with another computer.

IDC is  intelligent wireless communications that integrate voice and data to support location-based and other high-value data applications and services on any wireless network or air interface. In present days this is easily used to communicate between two mobile devices.

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Example of Integrated data communication:

As we have shown above, the communication is done using a wireless network thus we easily say that the wireless data communication in the integrated mode is one of the examples of integrated data communication.

Wireless SCADA systems are one of the good examples of this communication. These systems usually operate over wide geographical area; country, province, large city, district, etc. These systems shall preferable operate as stand alone and well "isolated" from other communication networks, which may be vulnerable to overloading, interference,  interruption of service, security attacks, fraud, etc. The data communication rates of SCADA is in the range of 1200 bps up to 9600 bps.

How to Read Electrical Circuits

Introduction on how to read electrical circuits:

Electrical circuits are the combinations of different electrical appliances connected in a particular manner. Electrical circuit is the symbolic representation of the circuit, which helps us to define all the parameters of the circuits such as voltage, current, resistance, capacitance and inductance, etc. It is the diagram in which all the electrical appliances connect. It is the very short way to create the circuit.

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Concept of reading electrical circuits:

In the electrical circuit, first find the values that is given in the standard units. Such as resistance in micro ohms so convert it in ohms, current in milli-ampere then convert it in ampere, voltage in milli-volt so convert it in volt, capacitance in micro farad so convert it in farad. Now first find the equivalent resistance of the circuit.

We have two formulae for finding the equivalent resistance one for series combination of resistances and other for the parallel resistances.

For the series combination of resistances Rs = R1 + R2 + R3

For the parallel combination of resistances `Rp = 1/ (R1) + 1/(R2) + 1/(R3)`

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Procedure for reading electric circuit:

To read any electrical circuit first find that which of the resistances are in series combination and which are in the parallel combination. Now apply the formula for finding the equivalent resistance. Now we use ohm’s law to find the respective current.

First, always try to find the current in the whole circuit and then try to find the potential difference across the series resistance. As we know the potential difference of the series resistance now try to find the potential difference of the parallel resistance. Now again using the Ohm’s law find the current in the remaining resistances. As we know the current and the potential of each resistance, we completely read the electrical circuit. If the circuit containing capacitors then we use the same procedure.  But the formula to find the equivalent capacitor is different from the resistors.

For the series combination of capacitors  `1/C_S = 1/(C1) + 1/ (C2) + 1/(C3)`

For the parallel combination of capacitors Cp = C1 + C2 + C3  same procedure is to followed to completely read the electrical circuit.

Wednesday, May 1

Two Types of Reflection

Introduction to Two types of Reflection

When light traveling in one medium strikes a boundary leading to another medium, a part of incident light is through back into the original medium one. This phenomenon is called reflection of light.

Reflection is of two types:

Regular reflection
Irregular reflection or diffuse reflection

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The Two types of reflection

1.    Regular reflection: When the reflection surface is smooth and well polished, the parallel rays falling on it are reflected parallel to another one, the reflected light goes in one particular direction. This is regular reflection. The smooth and well polished surface is called mirror. Silver metal is one of the best reflectors of light. So, ordinary mirrors are made by depositing a thin layer of silver metal on one side of a plane glass sheet. The silver layer is protected by a coat of red paint. The reflection of light in a mirror takes place at the silver surface. A plane mirror is represented by a straight line, with a number of short, oblique lines showing back of the mirror.

2.    Irregular reflection: When the reflecting surface is rough, the parallel rays falling on it are reflected in different direction. Such a reflection is known as diffuse reflection or irregular reflection or even scattering of light. In this, a surface will behave as a smooth surface as long as the surfaces variations are small as compared to the wavelength of incident light. As wavelength of visible light is very small therefore, every surface acts as a rough surface and scattering of light or irregular reflection is more common. For example, any object in a room can be seen from all the parts of the room. This is because surface of the object is rough and it scatters or reflects light in all directions.

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Two types of Reflection : Summary

Reflection of light is the phenomenon of bouncing back of light in the same medium on striking the surface of any object.

Energy Bands in Silicon

Introduction to Energy Bands in silicon:

Before we start with energy bands in silicon,  let us know about energy bands.The energy band of any solid is a structure which describes the allowed and the forbidden values of energies for that solid. The energy band is a function of the diffracted quantum mechanical electron waves which are present in a periodic crystal lattice which have a specific crystal system and specific Bravais lattice.

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Reason behind formation of energy band in elements like silicon

As the electrons of any single isolated atom occupy several atomic orbitals which are in the form of set energy level that are discrete. If a molecule is formed by several atoms, which are brought together, the atomic levels of the atoms split and form a coupled oscillation. Similarly if a large number of atoms of the order of 1020 or more are brought together in the form of a solid, the atomic levels are very large in number and the energy difference between the two energy levels is very small which give rise to a continuous band of the energy levels.

Description of Energy Bands in Silicon

The Fermi level is one of the important levels in the energy band of any material because it determines the nature of the material i.e. the material is conductor or insulator or the semiconductor. The silicon is a semiconductor material and for it the Fermi level is exists essentially in the halfway between the valence and the conduction bands of the silicon. In silicon at 0 K temperatures there is no conduction of electron but at finite temperatures the electrons moves from valence band to the conduction band and the number of electrons which reaches the conduction band contributes for the flow of current in silicon and this current can be modeled by Fermi function.

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Conclusion for Energy Bands in Silicon

There are some intervals in the energy bands which contain no levels or the orbitals these interval forms the energy band gaps. The energy bands of any material determine several characteristics like the electronic and the optical properties of the material.