Monday, June 3

Directional Compass

Introduction for directional compass:

A Directional compass is the device ,which gives the direction towards any sides,i.e. East ,West,North,South. This is very useful for us,in the sense  of moving to different places.It is a kind of device which is always found with the kind of different people who loves and like to visit different places.The reading a compass is not so difficult to see ,such very hard work to do as it is something which depends on the way we place the compass there is the a proper format to do all this prospect .When we place it,the compass gives the direction with degree also.The degree which may be in the form of  15 degree or may be in the form of ratio.There are different types of compass , one is the analog which will be place in the direction manually and the other is one which reads the direction automatically.The analog one is available in the market for normal people.Other is digital used for research purpose.I like to share this Newtons 3rd Law of Motion with you all through my article.

The compass are also of many type one is the analog which is place in the direction manually and other is one which reads the direction automatically.The analog one is  available in the market for a lesser cost.Other one is digital compass which is mainly used  for scientific activities,for research purpose,military and navigation purpose, and for surveying.There are enhanced functions are there in digital compass such as altitude measurement,atmospheric measurement etc developed by various sensors and electronic system which serves the purpose

Advantages of Using Directional Compass

The person will never lose his way.

The thing which is place some where Far can be found easily.

It useful when the people or group of members has gone for any mission.So the compass gives the direction about the side and degree in mountains.

The other profit is the compass is very easy to read and give the direction according to the place.

It is better to use a digital compass which will not betray in the way of  showing the direction.

Properties of a Compass

A good compass should not be inclined to any on the side.

The compass should be able to differentiate between the poles and normal place.

There are other constraint about the kind of land and angle the digital compass although has all the quality.

Milky Way Center

Introduction to milky way center:

Milky way  having a huge group of stars and spatial bodies .Our sun belongs to milky way galaxy While we look at the sky there are infinite numbers of stars. The common question that arises in our minds is how the stars are distributed in the space. Astronomers found that the stars are occurred in the huge groups. These large groups  of stars are called as the  Galaxies.

Explanation about the milky way galaxy center:

Galaxy:  This is a part of universe that has a huge group of stars and other celestial bodies nebulae, and interstellar material bound together by gravitational force is called as Galaxy.

Milky way galaxy having a  huge group of stars in the galaxy is held together by the gravitational attraction between them. A part from stars this  milky way galaxy having a huge cloud of gases at the center which  called as Nebulae (Birth place of new stars) A milky way galaxy may have planets and other celestial bodies. The minimum stars that contain in the  smallest galaxies are about 1000,000  stars  while  the  largest  contain  up  to  3000  billion  stars. It is estimated that there are around 100 billion galaxies in the universe. One important thing is Sun belongs to Milky Way Galaxy.Understanding fourth state of matter is always challenging for me but thanks to all science help websites to help me out.

Galaxy types-Milky way center

Types of galaxies:

Galaxies have different shapes and based on the shape of alignment of the stars it has divided into three types

Spiral galaxies

elliptical galaxies

Irregular galaxies.

Elliptical and Irregular galaxies

Spiral galaxies:

In a spiral galaxy the stars forms a big spiral pinwheel with radiating from the from the central hub. The Milky Way galaxy is an example of spiral galaxy. The word milky way word name derived from the Roman word “via galactic” which means the road of milk. Most of the galaxies in the milky way galaxy lie in a disc shaped region called galactic disc.

The central part of the disc is thicker and bulges on both the sides like a old fashioned sandwiched toaster. The density of stars in the bulge region is higher than the outer side. Starting from the center bulged region group of stars spread out of arms our sun is located in one spiral arms .The sun takes about 250 million years to complete one revolution around the galactic center.

Elliptical galaxies:

In an elliptical galaxy the stars are confined to a region mainly in ellipsoid volume.Here the group of stars in this galaxy shapes like egg like structure.Hence it got it names as elliptical structure. The elliptical galaxies are described by the American scientist “Hubble”.Most Elliptical galaxies are composed of older low mass stars with interstellar medium.These type of galaxies will be around 10-15% in the universe.

Irregular galaxies:

In irregular galaxy the alignment of group of stars are fashioned in a irregular manner .It doe not having a peculiar shape. Hence they got the name irregular galaxies. This type of galaxies is useful in understand the overall evolution of the galaxies. These are having a low Metallicity rate and high level of gases and seem to be the earliest galaxies that populated in the universe.

AC DC Current Difference

Introduction to AC DC current difference:

The electric current is the very basic and the important form of the energy. If there is no electricity, it affects our life a lot. There are two types of the electric current. One is called the alternating current (a.c) and the other is called the direct current (d.c). In our house holds the electricity coming form the power houses, this is the alternating current and the electric current which we get directly from a primary cell or the secondary cell is called the direct current. Here we discuss about the differences between the direct current and the alternating current.Please express your views of this topic Transfer of Heat by commenting on blog.

AC DC Current Difference:

The alternating current is the time varying current, which is alternating in the nature that means the direction is changing after every fixed interval of time. The direct current is also a time varying current but it is unidirectional current. The alternating current is representing by the sine function like I = I0 Sin wt, where w is the angular frequency of the alternating current and t be the instantaneous time. The direct current is simple represented by the I. The alternating current is the current which can travel with a large distances without being a large loss in energy while the direct current cannot travel through the long distances without any loss. The alternating current can travel only at the surface area of the wire that is why the wires carry the alternating current is the combination of large number of very thin wires. This effect of the alternating current is called the skin effect. The direct current can pass through the interior of the wire. We cannot use the capacitor or the inductor in the direct current devices because the frequency of the direct current is zero. In the alternating current, we cannot use the ohm’s law because there are three types of the resistances used, such as the inductance, capacitance and the ohmic resistance.

Conclusion of AC DC differences:

The alternating current is more dangerous than the direct current. The shock of the alternating current is repulsive while the shock of the direct current is attractive in nature. If we get the shock of 220 V that is the reading of the ac voltmeter that means we get the shock of the peak value of the ac voltage that means we get the shock of 220 × 1.414 V.

JJ Thomson Cathode Ray

Introduction to JJ Thomson cathode ray

JJ Thomson received the Nobel prize in 1906 for his revolutionary work on the discovery of electrons.

He discovered electrons from the minute observations while performing the cathode ray tube experiment.

He added a number of enhancements in the cathode ray tube experiment, the results of which proved that there did exist subatomic particles. Prior to the discovery of electrons by JJ Thomson, all scientists believed that atoms were the smallest units of matter and they were indivisible.I like to share this Examples of Momentum with you all through my article.

Description of JJ Thompson cathode ray tube experiment

The cathode ray tube experiment comprises of the following arrangement:-

A long glass tube called the cathode ray tube is taken and evacuated so that air pressure inside it falls to a very low value - around 10^-2 to 10^-6 Pascals.

A metal cathode and a metal anode are fixed inside the two ends of the cathode ray tube described above.

The metal anode is connected to the positive terminal of a battery and is thus also called as the positive electrode.

The metal cathode is connected to the negative terminal of the battery and is thus also called as the negative electrode.

When electric current passed through the circuit, fluorescent green rays called the cathode rays were emitted from cathode and traveled towards the anode.

Observations and conclusions of JJ Thomson from the cathode ray tube experiment

JJ Thomson observed the following points from the cathode ray tube experiment that led him to the discovery of electrons.

Observations and their corresponding conclusions

The cathode rays were attracted by the positively charged anode - thus, the cathode rays were negatively charged.

The cathode rays were deflected by electric and magnetic fields - this further proves that they were negatively charged.

The cathode rays cast shadow of an object kept in their path - this proves that they travel in straight lines.

The cathode rays cause a light paper wheel kept in their path to rotate about its axis - this proves that they are composed of particles of some kind, because only matter can cause matter to move.

These were the main observations made by JJ Thomson in his cathode ray tube experiment. Thus, he concluded that the cathode rays consisted of some negatively charged particles called electrons, and thus, an atom could not be indivisible. The discovery of electrons in the beginning of the 20th century marked the beginning of a century of further discoveries that would introduce new concepts in science.

Paramagnetism and Diamagnetism

Introduction to Paramagnetism and Diamagnetism:

1. Diamagnetic substances are those which have tendency to move from stronger to the weaker part of the extended magnetic field.  In other words, unlike the way a magnet attracts metals like iron, it would repel a diamagnetic substance.

2. Paramagnetic substances are those which get weakly magnetized when placed in an external magnetic field.  They have tendency to move from a region to weak magnetic field to strong magnetic field i.e. they get weakly attracted to a magnate.

Diamagnetism: paramagnetism and diamagnetism

Diamagnetism: The simplest explanation for diamagnetism is as follows:

(a)Electron in an atom orbiting around nucleus possess orbital angular momentum.  These orbiting electrons are equivalent to current carrying loop and thus possess orbital magnetic movement.

(b)Diamagnetic substances are those ones in which resultant magnetic movement in a atom is zero.  When magnetic field is applied those electrons having orbital magnetic movement in the same directions slow down and those in the oppo0site direction speed up.  This happens due to induced current in accordance with the lenz’s law.

(c)Some diamagnetic materials are bismuth, copper, lead, silicon, nitrogen, water and sodium chloride.

(d)Diamagnetism is present in all the substances.  However, the effect is so weak in most cases that it gets shifted by other effects like paramagnetism, ferromagnetism etc.

(e)The most exotic diamagnetic material are super conductors.  These are metals, cool to very low temperatures which exhibits both perfect conductivity and perfect diamagnetism.  A superconductor repels a magnet and is repelled by the magnet.

Paramagnetism: paramagnetism and diamagnetism


(a)The individual atoms of a paramagnetic material posses a permanent magnetic dipole movement of their own.  On account of the ceaseless random thermal motion of the atoms, no net magnetization is seen.

(b)In the presence of external field, which is strong enough, and at low temperature, the individual atomic dipole movement can be made to align and point in the same direction as the external field.

(c)Some paramagnetic materials are aluminium, sodium, calcium, oxygen and copper chloride. Experimentally, one finds that the magnetization of a paramagnetic material is inversely proportional to the absolute temperature T.

M = CB0/T

This is known as Curie’s law.

Friday, May 31

Physical Weathering of Rocks

Introduction to Weathering:

Weathering is a process where the earth’s rocks, soil, and mineral break down due to the direct contact with the planet’s atmosphere. The weathering occurs due to no movement, this is called as ‘situ’. The man-made structures also face weathering problems due to atmospheric exposure. Weathering is of two types, physical weathering, here the breakdown of the rocks and soil is due to the atmospheric conditions such as ice, water, heat, and pressure.Another type is chemical weathering, it is a process where the earth’s rocks and soil breaks down due to the effect of the earth’s atmospheric chemical directly on them.Please express your views of this topic Internal Energy Equation by commenting on blog.

Physical Weathering:

In physical weathering abrasion is the primary process, the physical and chemical process are inter related, as the cracks created by the physical process are increased in the surface area by the chemical reactions on it.

Type in physical weathering:

Thermal stress: Thermal stress weathering is process which causes due to the expansion and contraction of the rocks as a result of temperature change. This is more common in the desert and the regions where the temperature is higher in the day time and cooler at the night.
Frost weathering: This type of weathering is common in the regions where the temperature is nearer to or around the freezing point of water. Here the soil or rocks get cracked due to the low temperatures
Pressure release: Here the materials which is not necessarily rocks having a heavy mass are removed or it is also known as unloading of overlaying materials. This is done by some erosion or other processes. As these over laying materials are heavy they create pressure on the underlying materials.
Hydraulic action: This action occurs in the rock face when the water rushes rapidly in the cracks. At the bottom of the crack the water and a layer of air gets trapped, this causes explosion when the wave retreats which results in crack widening.

5 Forms of Energy

Energy represents itself in various forms. For a physics student it is required that he must be aware of all these forms. In this article we shall discuss the 5 forms of Energy.I like to share this Heat Transfer Rate with you all through my article.

Introduction to the 5 forms of Energy
Energy is defined as the amount of work done by a force.
Energy can neither be created nor be destroyed. It can only be changed from one form to another.
Five forms of energy:
(a) Heat energy

(b) Internal energy

(c) Electrical energy

(d) Chemical energy

(e) Nuclear energy

Description of 5 forms of energy

1. Heat energy :It is the energy possessed by a body by virtue of random motion of the molecules of the body.

2. Internal energy : It is the total energy possessed by the body by virtue of particular configuration on its molecules and also their random motion.  Does internal energy of the body is the some of potential and kinetic energies of the molecules of the body.  Potential energy is due to configuration of the molecules against inter molecular forces and kinetic energy is due to random motion of the molecules.

3. Electrical energy : Electrical energy arises on account of work required to be done in moving the free charge carriers in a particular direction through a conductor.

5 forms of Energy (cont.)

4. Chemical energy : Chemical energy of a body, say a chemical compound is the energy possessed by it by virtue of chemical bonding of its atoms.  The chemical energy becomes available in a chemical reaction.  Chemical energy arises from the fact that the molecules participating in the chemical reaction have different binding energies.  A stable chemical compound has less energy then the separated parts.  A chemical reaction is basically a rearrangement of atoms.

5. Nuclear energy : Nuclear energy is the ;energy obtainable  from an atomic nuclear.  Two distinct modes of obtaining nuclear energy are :

(a)             Nuclear fission

(b)             Nuclear fusion

Nuclear fission involves splitting of a heavy nucleus into two or more lighter nuclei, where as nuclear fusion involves fusing of two or more lighter nuclei to form a heavy nucleus.